FAQ's

FAQ's

Adrenal Cancer

What is Adrenal Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start in adrenal gland, they cause adrenal cancer.

Anatomy of adrenal glands

Anatomy of Adernal Cancer

Copyright © The McGraw- Hill Companies, Inc. The above image is used for educational purpose only.

What are the general symptoms of Adrenal Cancer?

In about 50% of the people, the symptoms appear due to hormone secretions by the tumour. In other cases, the tumour has grown large enough to press against other organs and cause discomfort.

Symptoms caused by androgen or estrogen production

These are usually seen in children. The most common symptoms are as follows:

  • Excessive growth of facial and body hair
  • Male hormones may also enlarge the penis in boys or the clitoris in girls.

Symptoms caused by cortisol production

  • Weight gain, usually greatest above the collar bone and around the abdomen
  • Fat deposits behind the neck and shoulders
  • Purple stretch marks on the abdomen
  • Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, and back in women
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Weakness and loss of muscle mass in the legs
  • Easy bruising
  • Depression and/or moodiness
  • Weakened bones (osteoporosis), which can lead to fractures
  • High blood sugar, often leading to diabetes
  • High blood pressure

Symptoms caused by aldosterone production

  • High blood pressure
  • Weakness
  • Muscle cramps
  • Low blood potassium levels

Symptoms due to large size of tumour

  • Pain near the tumour
  • A feeling of fullness in the abdomen
  • Trouble eating because of a feeling of filling up easily.

What are the general causes of Adrenal cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

  • Genetic syndromes
  • Smoking
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • High-fat diet
  • Exposure to cancer-causing substances

Can Adrenal Cancer be prevented?

It can be prevented to a certain extent by avoiding the risk factors.

What are the stages of Adrenal cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In Adrenal cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to the origin of the cancer (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

 

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Adrenal cancer?

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

 

Medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

 

Can Adrenal Cancer be detected early?

It is difficult to diagnose Adrenal Cancer early, especially in adults. In children, it is usually much easier because the effects of the hormonal changes start to appear early. The best bet is to pay attention to the signs and symptoms and visit a doctor.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Other drugs

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor. You can also get your genetic make-up tested to see if you are prone to adrenal cancer.
 

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Bile duct Cancer

What is Bile duct Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start at the bile duct, they cause bile duct cancer.

Anatomy of Bile duct

bile-duct-anatomy

Copyright © Terese Winslow, U.S. Govt, The above image is used for educational purpose only.

What are the general symptoms of Bile duct Cancer?

  • Jaundice
  • Itching
  • Light-colored/greasy stools
  • Dark urine
  • Abdominal (belly) pain
  • Loss of appetite/weight loss
  • Fever
  • Nausea and vomiting

What are the general causes of Bile duct cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

People who have chronic (long-standing) inflammation of the bile ducts have an increased risk of developing bile duct cancer. Several conditions of the liver or bile ducts can cause this.

  • Certain liver/bile duct diseases:
    • Primary sclerosing cholangitis
    • Bile duct stones
    • Choledochal cysts
    • Liver fluke infections
    • Abnormalities where the bile duct and pancreatic duct normally meet
    • Cirrhosis
    • Infection withhepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
    • Older age - Most people diagnosed with bile duct cancer are in their 60s or 70s.
    • Obesity
    • Exposure to Thorotrast (radioactive substance)
    • Family history
    • Diabetes
    • Alcohol intake poses a higher risk.
    • Other possible risk factors
    • Smoking
    • Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)
    • Infection with HIV (the virus that causes AIDS)
    • Exposure to asbestos
    • Exposure to radon or other radioactive chemicals
    • Exposure to dioxin, nitrosamines, or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

Can Bile duct Cancer be prevented?

Bile duct cancer be prevented to a certain extent by avoiding the risk factors. Other measures that may bbe taken include:

 

  • Vaccination against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent infection with this virus and the cirrhosis it can cause.
  • Precautions to avoid blood-borne or sexually transmitted infections by HBV and other viruses (like hepatitis C virus) to help prevent cirrhosis.
  • Treatment of hepatitis infections (such as B and C) to help prevent cirrhosis.
  • Avoidance of excessive alcohol use to help prevent cirrhosis.
  • Quit (or don’t start) smoking.

What are the stages of Bile duct cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In Bile duct cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to bile duct(localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Bile duct cancer?

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal. For all cases of bile duct cancer combined

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Bile duct Cancer be detected early?

Only a small number of bile duct cancers are found early. This is because the tumour forms deep inside the body and hence, routine physical examination doesn’t help much.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section you should probably visit a doctor.
 

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Bladder Cancer

What is Bladder Cancer?

An abnormal growth of cells that starts invading the normal cells around it is called Cancer. When these abnormal tumor cells are present in the bladders, they lead to bladder cancer. These are malignant tumours. Cancer cells can also cause benign tumors sometimes grow large enough to cause problems, but they do not grow into nearby tissues or spread to distant parts of the body. The patient can usually be cured with surgery.

Anatomy of Bladder

Bladder Cancer Anatomy

The above image is used for educational purpose only.

What are the general symptoms of Bladder Cancer?

General symptoms of bladder cancer include:

  • Blood in the urine
  • Changes in bladder habits or symptoms of irritation
  • Bladder cancer can sometimes cause changes in urination, such as:
  • Having to urinate more often than usual
  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Feeling as if you need to go right away, even when the bladder is not full

Symptoms of advanced bladder canc

  • Being unable to urinate
  • Lower back pain on one side
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss
  • Swelling in the feet
  • Bone pain

These signs and symptoms of bladder cancer can also be caused by other conditions, including other bladder problems. However, it's important to get it checked so that the cause can be treated

What are the general causes of Bladder cancer?

Some of the causes and risk-factors for bladder Cancer include:

 

  • Smoking – Smokers are three times more likely to get bladder cancer than non-smokers.
  • Race and ethnicity - Whites are about twice as likely to develop bladder cancer as African Americans.
  • A ge  - The risk of bladder cancer increases with age.
  • Gender Bladder cancer is much more common in men than in women.
  • Chronic bladder irritation and infections
  • Personal history of bladder or other urothelial cancer
  • Bladder birth defects
  • Genetics and family history
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy
  • Arsenic in drinking water
  • Low Fluid Consumption

Can Bladder Cancer be prevented?

Most bladder cancers can be prevented by decreasing a person’s exposure to the risk factors listed under the “Causes” section.

What are the stages of bladder cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor  has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In bladder cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to bladders (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

 

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of bladder cancer?

Needless to say, if the bladder cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

The 5-year survival rate refers to the percentage of patients who live at least 5 years after their cancer is diagnosed. Of course, many people live much longer than 5 years (and many are cured).

The numbers below are based on thousands of people diagnosed with bladder cancer from 1988 to 2001. These numbers come from the National Cancer Institute's SEER database.

Stage Relative 5-year survival rate
0 98%
I 88%
II 63%
III 46%
IV 15%

Can bladder Cancer be detected early?

Your medical history and a physical exam to check for risk factors can help determine, to some extent, whether you have or are prone to bladder cancer.

If symptoms and/or the results of the physical exam suggest you might have bladder cancer, other tests will probably be done.

Screening

Screening tests or exams are used to look for a disease in people who have no symptoms (and who have not had that disease before).

Tests that might be used to screen for bladder cancer

 

  • Urinalysis
  • Urine cytology
  • Urine tests for tumor markers

What are the Treatments available?

The main types of treatment for bladder cancer are:

  • Surgery
  • Intravesical therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy

Surgery, alone or with other treatments, is used in nearly all cases.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section , you should probably visit a doctor. You can also get your genetic make-up checked to see if you are prone to bladder cancer or not.

Bone Cancer

What is Bone Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start at the bone, they cause bone cancer. However, sometimes other cancers can also spread to the bone.

 

“Cancers that are sometimes called “bone cancers” start in the blood forming cells of the bone marrow − not in the bone itself. A primary bone tumor starts in the bone itself. True (or primary) bone cancers are called sarcomas. Sarcomas are cancers that start in bone, muscle, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, fat tissue, as well as some other tissues. They can develop anywhere in the body.” – from www.cancer.org

Anatomy of Bone

Copyright © Terese Winslow LLC, U.S. Govt, The above image is used for educational purpose only.

What are the general symptoms of Bone Cancer?

  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Fractures - Bone cancer can weaken the bone it develops in, but most of the time the bones do not fracture (break).
  • Other symptoms - weight loss and fatigue.

What are the general causes of Bone cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

 

Genetic disorders

A very small number of bone cancers (like osteosarcomas, Chondrosarcomas, Chordomas) appear to be hereditary and are caused by defects (mutations) in certain genes.

 

Paget disease

Paget (PA-jet) disease is a benign (non-cancerous) but pre-cancerous condition that affects one or more bones.

 

Radiation

 

Bone marrow transplantation

 

Injuries

People have wondered whether injury to a bone can cause cancer, but this has never been proven.

Many people with bone cancer remember having hurt that part of their bone. Most doctors believe that this did not cause the cancer, but rather that the cancer caused them to remember the incident or that the injury drew their attention to that bone and caused them to notice a problem that had already been present for some time. – cancer.org

Can Bone Cancer be prevented?

As of now, no known lifestyle changes can prevent bone cancers.

What are the stages of Bone cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In Bone cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to the origin of the cancer (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

 

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

 

Survival rates on of Bone cancer? – Please advise (This is the same as breast cancer)

Needless to say, if the bone cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.For all cases of bone cancer combined (in both adults and children), the 5-year relative survival is about 70%.

 

Medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Bone Cancer be detected early?

The best bet is to pay attention to the signs and symptom s as there are currently no routine tests for bone cancer detection.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor.
 

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

.

Brain Cancer (Adult)

What is Brain Cancer? (Adult)

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start at the brain and/or spinal cord, they cause brain cancer. Both benign and malignant tumors cause signs and symptoms and need treatment. Benign brain and spinal cord tumors grow and press on nearby areas of the brain but rarely spread into other parts of the brain. Malignant brain and spinal cord tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other parts of the brain.

Anatomy of Brain

 

Copyright © : The above image is copyright of respective author and being used for educational purpose only.

What are the general symptoms of Brain Cancer?

The signs and symptoms of brain and spinal cord tumors depend on a number of factors:

  • Location of tumour
  • size,
  • rate of growth
  • age of the patient

Some symptoms may appear gradually, others suddenly (like seizures).

General symptoms

Tumors in any part of the brain may cause the pressure inside the skull (known as intracranial pressure) to rise. This can be caused by growth of the tumor itself, swelling in the brain, or blockage of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Increased pressure can lead to general symptoms such as:

  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Blurred vision
  • Balance problems
  • Personality or behavior changes
  • Seizures
  • Drowsiness or even coma

Symptoms of tumors in different parts of the central nervous system

  • Tumours in Cerebrum : cause weakness or numbness of part of the body, often on just one side.
  • Tumors in or near the parts of the cerebrum : cause problems with speech or even understanding words.
  • Tumors in the front part of the cerebrum: affect thinking, personality, and language.
  • Tumors in an area of the brain called the basal ganglia: cause abnormal movements and an abnormal positioning of the body.
  • Tumor in the cerebellum: cause trouble with walking or other everyday functions, even eating.
  • Tumors in the back part of the cerebrum: cause vision problems.
  • Tumors in or near other cranial nerves: may cause loss of hearing, balance problems, weakness of some facial muscles, or trouble swallowing.
  • Spinal cord tumors: numbness, weakness, or lack of coordination in the arms and/or legs, as well as bladder or bowel problems.

What are the general causes of Brain cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

Radiation exposure : The best known environmental risk factor for brain tumors. This comes most often from radiation therapy to treat some other condition. For example, before the risks of radiation were known, children with ringworm of the scalp (a fungal infection) were sometimes treated with low-dose radiation therapy, which was later found to increase their risk of brain tumors as they got older.

Family history : Certain genetic disorders or illnesses may increase the risk of developing brain and spinal cord cancer. These include:

  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)
  • Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2)
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome
  • Other syndromes - Some families may have genetic disorders that are not well recognized or that may even be unique to a particular family.

Immune system disorders : People with impaired immune systems have an increased risk of developing lymphomas of the brain or spinal cord.

Factors with uncertain, controversial, or unproven effects on brain tumor risk: Cell phone use

Can Brain Cancer be prevented?

Brain Cancer may be prevented to an extent by reducing the exposure to risk factors, outlined in the “Causes” section. However, the risk of many cancers in adults can be reduced with certain lifestyle changes (such as staying at a healthy weight or quitting smoking). But other than radiation exposure, there are no known lifestyle-related causes of brain and spinal cord tumors, so at this time there is no known way to protect against most of these tumors.

What are the stages of Brain cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In Brain cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to Brain and spinal cord (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Brain cancer?

Needless to say, if the brain cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I and is easily accessible, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Brain Cancer be detected early?

At this time there are no widely recommended tests to screen for brain and spinal cord tumors. However, as a precaution you may go to the doctor and check whether you have any of the inherited syndromes that increase the risk of developing the brain cancer. Presence of any of the signs and symptoms should also alert you. It might be nothing, but why risk it? Just get a screening.

What are the Treatments available?

Since it is a very difficult cancer to treat, there is usually a team in place, led by a neurosurgeon. Other doctors on the team may include:

  • Neurologist: a doctor who diagnoses brain and nervous system diseases and treats them with medicines
  • Radiation oncologist: a doctor who uses radiation to treat cancer
  • Medical oncologist: a doctor who uses chemotherapy and other medicines to treat cancers
  • Endocrinologist: a doctor who treats diseases in glands that secrete hormones

Several types of treatment can be used to treat brain and spinal cord tumors, including:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Other types of drugs

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor. 

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Brain Cancer (Child)

What is Brain and Spinal Cord Cancer/CNS Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start in thebrain or spinal cord, they cause brain cancer. However, not all cancer cells are malignant. Some are benign. That is, they may grow in size but do not spread and invade other cells.Brain tumors in children are more likely to start in the lower parts of the brain, such as the cerebellum and brain stem, than they are in adults. But they can start in the upper parts of the brain as well.

Anatomy of Brain

 

Copyright © : The above image is copyright of respective author and being used for educational purpose only.

What are the general symptoms of Brain Cancer?

Increased pressure in the brain due to both, benign and/or malignant tumours can lead to general symptoms such as:

  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Crossed eyes or blurred vision
  • Balance problems
  • Behavior changes
  • Seizures
  • Drowsiness or even coma

What are the general causes of Brain cancer?

Clear causes for Brain and Spinal Cord tumours are still debatable. However, certain risk factors have been recognized.

Excessive Radiation exposure

Inherited and genetic conditions: People with inherited tumor syndromes often have many tumors that start when they are young. Some of the more well-known syndromes include:

  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease)
  • Neurofibromatosis type 2
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome
  • Gorlin syndrome (basal cell nevus syndrome)
  • Turcot syndrome
  • Cowden syndrome
  • Hereditary retinoblastoma
  • Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome
  • Some families may have genetic disorders that are not well recognized or that could even be unique to a particular family.

Can Brain Cancer be prevented?

“Other than exposure to radiation, there are no known lifestyle-related or environmental causes of brain and spinal cord tumors in children, so at this time there is no way to protect against most of these cancers.” (cancer.org)

What are the stages of Brain cancer?

Most tumors in the brain or spinal cord do not usually spread. Hence, they are not formally staged. Some of the most important factors that determine your child’s prognosis include:

  • The type of tumor
  • The grade of the tumor
  • The location and size of the tumor
  • How much of the tumor can be removed by surgery
  • Your child’s age
  • Your child’s functional level
  • Whether or not the tumor has spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to other parts of the brain or spinal cord
  • Whether or not tumor cells have spread beyond the central nervous system

Survival rates on of Brain cancer?

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

Type of Tumor 5-Year Survival Rate
Pilocytic astrocytoma About 95%
Fibrillary (diffuse) astrocytoma About 80% to 85%
Anaplastic astrocytoma About 30%
Glioblastoma About 20%
Oligodendroglioma About 90% to 95%
Ependymoma/anaplastic ependymoma About 75%
PNETs (includes medulloblastoma and pineoblastoma) About 60% to 65%

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Brain Cancer be detected early?

At this time there are no widely recommended screening tests for most children to look for brain or spinal cord tumors before they start to cause symptoms. These tumoursare usually detected as a result of signs or symptoms the child is having. However, through genetic tests, one may find out whether one is at an increased risk of developing Brain Cancer. If yes, the doctor might suggest other tests to detect the Cancer early.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Other drug treatments

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs. Also, it is a good idea to get a second opinion from a doctor who has dealt with the kind of cancer your child has.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If your child has any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor. A genetic test would also help.

 

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel your child has any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably take your child to a doctor.
 
All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Breast Cancer

What is Breast Cancer?

Cancer is caused due to an abnormal growth of cells that start invading the normal cells around them. When these abnormal tumor cells are present in the breast, they lead to breast cancer. They are capable of spreading to other parts of the body, like in the lymph nodes under the collar bone, thus extending the reach of the tumor. Though it is a disease that affects primarily women, men can get it, too. But don’t worry! Regular screenings and mammograms (an x-ray exam of the breast that is used to detect and evaluate breast changes) can help in early detection and prevention of the cancer’s spread through timely or early treatment.

Anatomy of Breast

What are the general symptoms of Breast Cancer?

The most visible symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass on or near your breast. This may be dormant (benign) or malignant. Usually, malignant tumors are hard with irregular edges, but may also be soft and rounded. More often than not, they are painless, but not always. Hence, it is best to get any new lump in that area checked by the relevant doctors or experienced healthcare professionals.

However, lumps or masses are not the only possible symptom of breast cancer.

Some other symptoms include:

  • Breast or nipple pain
  • Skin irritation
  • Swelling of the breast – all or in part
  • Nipple discharge (does not include breast milk)
  • Retraction of nipple (i.e. when it turns inward)
  • Redness of the breast skin or nipple
  • Scaling or thickening of the breast skin or nipple
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes near the collar bone and under the arm. This indicates that the cancer may have spread to the nodes.

While any or all these symptoms may not always end in breast cancer, it is advisable to consult a healthcare professional when any of these symptoms appear. Mammograms may help in detecting breast cancer before the appearance of a symptom. However, it must be stressed that mammograms are not always successful in discovering breast cancer. That does not mean you should not take one! Any prevention is better than cure.  So, go out there, make that visit, consult your doctor and take a step closer to knowledge and, perhaps, relief!

What are the general causes of Breast cancer?

Certain lifestyles and, sometimes, our genes make us prone to breast cancer. A person’s chances of getting this disease are calculated based on certain “risk factors”. These risk factors are different for different kinds of cancer.

Risk factor here may refer to anything from age to habits to genetics. But the presence of these risk factors doesn’t always mean that one shall definitely be diagnosed with cancer. Let’s take a look at a few factors.

NATURAL FACTORS

  • Gender : Women are 100 times more likely to get breast cancer than men. Certain medical professionals believe that this is due to the presence of oestrogen and progesterone in the females as these two hormones are capable of promoting the growth of breast cancer cells.
  • Ageing: The older you get, the more you are at risk. Hence, you should start going for mammogram tests as soon as you reach your 40s.
  • Genes: Breast cancer is considered to be hereditary 5-10% of the time. Tests can be done to check for the same for early detection and action.
  • Family history: If you have close blood relatives with breast cancer, chances are that you are at a greater risk of  developing it as well. However, research shows that over 85% of the women diagnosed with breast cancer did not have any close relatives with the same disease. Hence, a regular check-up would help greatly.
  • If the cancer is present in one breast, you are 3 times more likely to develop it in the other breast. This also occurs if cancer in the first breast starts to spread.
  • Asians, Hispanics and Native Americans are at a lower risk as compared to Caucasian or white women, who are prone to developing breast cancer. It may even prove fatal for African-Americans!

Other risk factors include:

  • Dense breast tissue
  • Early onset of menstruation (before age 12) and/or late onset of menopause (post-55)
  • Exposure to radiation – primarily during teenage years. Radiation treatment after the sage of 40 does not appear to enhance the risk.
  •  Diethylstilbestrol - a drug given to women to lower chances of miscarriage in the mid-90s.
  • Benign/dormant breast issues - non-proliferative lesions, proliferative lesions, lobular carcinoma in situ (lobular neoplasia)
  • Lifestyle choices - Certain lifestyle choices may increase one’s risk of breast cancer. Some of these lifestyle decisions include:

Having children after the age of 30: Though pregnancy affects different kinds of breast cancers in different ways, having a child after 30, definitely increases chances of breast cancer.

The Combined Hormone Therapy for menopause increases chances of developing the cancer as well as the chances of dying from it.

Intake of alcohol is directly proportional to the increase in risk of getting breast cancer.

Obesity during menopause may increase the risk. This does not seem to hold true if the individual was obese since childhood.

Tobacco smoke

Chemicals in the environment

Lowering the risk of breast cancer

Breastfeeding may lower the risk of cancer, according to research.

Exercises seem to lower chances of developing breast cancer. According to a study in Women’s Health Initiative, brisk-walking as little as 1.25 to 2.5 hours per week can reduce the risk by 18%! So grab those running shoes!

What are the stages of breast cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor  has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In breast cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to breasts (localized cancer, Stage I), whether it has invaded the (regional) lymph nodes or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

What are the survival rates of breast cancer?

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can breast Cancer be detected early?

Early detection is possible for breast cancer. However, for this you must be regular and disciplined with your check-ups, screenings and mammogram tests. These are there to help detect the cancer before it starts causing symptoms, and while it is still small and restricted to the breast. If you can feel the cancer as a lump or mass on or near your breast, it is an indication that the cancer has already spread beyond the breast to other parts of the body. Women with a higher risk are encouraged to get an MRI done for detection.

And remember, if you feel a lump or unusual mass on your breast at home, visit a doctor as soon as possible. It may be nothing, but why not go ahead and give yourself a chance for early detection?

What are the Treatments available?

Treatments available are dependent on the stages of cancer. Primary treatments available are as follows:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Bone-directed therapy

Treatments can also be divided into broader groups basis their process and time of use.

Local Therapy: Intended to treat a tumor at the site, without affecting the rest of the body.

Examples:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation

Systemic Therapy:  This involves drugs which can be given orally or directly into the bloodstream to reach cancer cells anywhere in the body.

Types of Systemic therapy:

  • Chemotherapy,
  • Hormone therapy
  • Targeted therapy

Adjuvant Therapy: Post-surgery, patients undergo treatment to prevent the cancer from returning. This is known as adjuvant therapy. As the tumor (Breast Cancer) grows, tumor cells may break away from the main breast tumor and start spreading. These cells cause no symptoms and are undetectable via x-rays. But they can start a new cancer in a different part of the body. The therapy kills these hidden, ninja cells.

Systemic therapy and radiation can be used as adjuvant therapy.
Neo-adjuvant Therapy: This is the treatment given before surgery to shrink/reduce the tumor for the possibility of a less extensive operation. It lowers the chance of a relapse. It includes treatments such as chemotherapy or hormone therapy.

If the therapeutic outcome depends on early diagnosis then can Breast Cancer be Diagnosed early?

Yes, breast cancer can be detected early. Please refer "Can Breast Cancer be detected early? section.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section (Hyperlink to that part of page), you should probably visit a doctor. You can also get your genetic make-up checked to see if you are prone to breast cancer or not.

How is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?

Diagnostic methods include a screening mammogram and a clinical breast examination. Sometimes, breast cancer can even be diagnosed with a simple self-examination, when you look for lumps on or near your breasts. However, not every change on your breast is a sign of breast cancer. It is advisable to visit the doctor nonetheless as more information is needed for an accurate diagnosis.

Breast Self Examination (BSE) You can use this method at home to check for lumps once a month.

(Adapted from the American Cancer Society by Health Gate Editorial Staff)

If you still menstruate, the best time to do BSE is 2 or 3 days after your period ends. These are the days when your breasts are least likely to be tender or swollen. If you no longer menstruate, pick a certain day—such as the first day of each month—to remind yourself to do BSE.

If you are taking hormones, talk with your doctor about when to do BSE.

Step 1

Stand in front of a mirror that is large enough for you to see your breasts clearly. Check each breast for anything unusual. Check the skin for

  • puckering,
  • dimpling, or
  • scaliness.

Look for a discharge from the nipples.

Steps 2 and 3

Check for changes in the shape or contour of your breasts. As you do these steps, you should feel your chest muscles tighten.

Step 2 – watching closely in the mirror, clasp your hands behind your head and press your hands forward.

Step 3 – press your hands firmly on your hips and bend slightly toward the mirror as you pull your shoulder and elbows forward.

Step 4 – gently squeeze each nipple and look for a discharge.

Step 5 – raise one arm. Use the pads of the fingers of your other hand to check the breast and the surrounding area—firmly, carefully, and thoroughly. Some women like to use lotion or powder to help their fingers glide easily over the skin. Feel for any unusual lump or mass under the skin.

Feel the tissue by pressing your fingers in small, overlapping areas about the size of a dime. To be sure you cover your whole breast, take your time and follow a definite pattern: lines, circles, or wedges.

Pay special attention to the area between the breast and the underarm, including the underarm itself. Check the area above the breast, up to the collarbone and all the way over to your shoulder.

Here are some tips on patterns that you can use:

  • Lines:
    • Start in the underarm area and move your fingers downward little by little until they are below the breast.
    • Then move your fingers slightly toward the middle and slowly move back up.
    • Go up and down until you cover the whole area.
  • Circles:
    • Beginning at the outer edge of your breasts, move your fingers slowly around the whole breast in a circle.
    • Move around the breast in smaller and smaller circles, gradually working toward the nipple.
    • Don't forget to check the underarm and upper chest areas, too.
  • Wedges:
    • Starting at the outer edge of the breast, move your fingers toward the nipple and back to the edge.
    • Check your whole breast, covering one small wedge-shaped section at a time.
    • Be sure to check the underarm area and the upper chest.

Step 6 – repeat step 5 while you are lying down. Lie flat on your back, with one arm over your head and a pillow or folded towel under the shoulder.

Step 7 – you may want to repeat step 5 in the shower. Your fingers will glide easily over soapy skin, so you can concentrate on feeling for changes underneath.

It is recommended that all women over the age of 20 examine their breasts once a month. One must not forget that delaying the diagnosis of breast cancer would not change the diagnosis, it can only worsen the outcome.

Cancer in Children

What is the difference between adult cancers and cancers in children?

Unlike many cancers in adults, childhood cancers are not strongly linked to lifestyle or environmental risk factors. Also, children’s bodies tend to handle chemotherapy better than those of adults. Hence, they respond better to chemo treatment. However, cancer treatments such as chemo and radiation therapy can cause long-term side effects, so children who have had cancer need careful follow-up for the rest of their lives.

What are the most common cancers seen in children?

  • Leukaemia
  • Brain and other central nervous system tumors
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Wilms tumor
  • Lymphoma (including both Hodgkin and >non-Hodgkin)
  • Rhabdo-myo-sarcoma
  • Retinoblastoma
  • Bone cancer (including >osteosarcoma and >Ewing sarcoma)

What are the causes of cancers in children?

Lifestyle factors are not considered to play much of a part in childhood cancers but environmental factors, such as radiation exposure, have been linked with some types. Parental exposures (such as smoking) might increase a child’s risk of certain cancers, but there is still much research going on to find conclusive results. So far, most childhood cancers have not been shown to have outside causes.

Changes in the DNA, inherited or developed, increase the risk of cancer in children.

Can childhood cancers be prevented?

Since childhood cancers are usually not lifestyle and environment-related, change in habit or location will probably not make a difference. However, if it is due to a mutated gene, preventive surgery may be sought. However, this is very rare.

Possible signs and symptoms of cancer in children

Each type of cancer has its own symptoms. However, some common symptoms are as follows.

  • An unusual lump or swelling
  • Unexplained paleness and loss of energy
  • Easy bruising
  • An ongoing pain in one area of the body
  • Limping
  • Unexplained fever or illness that doesn't go away
  • Frequent headaches, often with vomiting
  • Sudden eye or vision changes
  • Sudden unexplained weight loss

How are childhood cancers treated?

Treatment options depend on the type and stage of cancer. Treatment options might include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and/or other types of treatment. In many cases, more than one of these treatments is used.

CervicalCancer

What is Cervical Cancer

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. Cervical cancers do not suddenly change into cancer. The normal cells of the cervix first gradually develop pre-cancerous changes that turn into cancer. These changes can be detected by the Pap test and treated to prevent cancer from developing.

Anatomy of Cervical

cervical-cancer

What are the general symptoms of Cervical Cancer?

Cervical cancer, at its early stage, usually causes no symptoms. But more advanced cervical cancers can sometimes cause symptoms, such as:

  • Vaginal bleeding (including bleeding after sexual intercourse).
  • Unusual vaginal discharge
  • Pelvic pain.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse.

What are the general causes of Cervical cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

Major risk factor: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection

Other risk factors for Cervical Cancer include:

  • Giving birth to many children.
  • Having many sexual partners.
  • Having first sexual intercourse at a young age.
  • Smoking cigarettes.
  • Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill").

Can Cervical Cancer be prevented?

Cervical Cancer may be prevented to an extent by reducing the exposure to risk factors, outlined in the “Causes” section.

What are the stages of Cervical cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor  has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In Cervical cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to Cervicals (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Cervical cancer?

Needless to say, if the cervical cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Cervical Cancer be detected early?

Cervical Cancer does not usually show signs and symptoms in the early stage. Hence, regular check-ups are recommended for detection. The earlier it is found, the easier it is to treat.

  • Diagnostic tests include:
  • Physical exam and history
  • Pap test
  • Pelvic exam
  • HPV test
  • Endocervical curettage
  • Colposcopy
  • Biopsy

What are the Treatments available?

Treatment options depend on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer.
  • The type of cervical cancer.
  • The patient's desire to have children.
  • The patient’s age.

Fo-ur types of standard treatment are used:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section , you should probably visit a doctor.

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and  www.cancer.org . Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Colon Cancer

What is Colon Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start in the colon, they cause colon cancer.

Anatomy of Colon Cancer

colon-cancer

What are the general symptoms of Colon Cancer?

  • A change in bowel habits.
  • Blood (either bright red or very dark) in the stool.
  • Diarrhoea, constipation, or feeling that the bowel does not empty all the way.
  • Stools that are narrower than usual.
  • Frequent gas pains, bloating, fullness, or cramps.
  • Weight loss for no known reason.
  • Feeling very tired.
  • Vomiting.

What are the general causes of Colon cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

  • A family history of cancer of the colon or rectum.
  • Certain hereditary conditions
  • A history of ulcerative colitis ( ulcers in the lining of the large intestine) or Crohn disease.
  • A personal history of cancer of the colon, rectum, ovary, endometrium, or breast.
  • A personal history of (small areas of bulging tissue) in the colon or rectum.

Can Colon Cancer be prevented?

It can be prevented to a certain extent by avoiding the risk factors.

What are the stages of Colon cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In Colon cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to the origin of the cancer (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

 

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Colon cancer?

Needless to say, if the endometrial colon cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

 

Medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Colon Cancer be detected early?

Apart from the signs and symptoms, certain tests can help diagnose the cancer early. These include:

  • Physical exam and history
  • Colonoscopy
  • Digital rectal exam
  • Fecal occult blood test
  • Barium enema
  • Sigmoidoscopy
  • Virtual colonoscopy
  • Biopsy

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Targetted therapy

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor. You can also get your genetic make-up tested to see if you are prone to colon cancer.

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Eye Cancer

What is Eye Cancer?

An abnormal growth of cells that starts invading the normal cells around it is called Cancer. When these abnormal tumor cells are present in the eyes, they lead to eye cancer. These are malignant tumours. Cancer cells can also cause benign tumors sometimes grow large enough to cause problems, but they do not grow into nearby tissues or spread to distant parts of the body.

What are the general symptoms of Eye Cancer?

Symptoms for eye cancer may not appear until it’s too late. However, some of the common signs and symptoms are as follows:

  • Blurry vision or sudden loss of vision
  • Floaters (spots or squiggles drifting in the field of vision) or flashes of light
  • Losing part of your field of sight
  • A growing dark spot on the colored part of the eye (iris)
  • Change in the size or shape of the pupil
  • Change in position of the eyeball within its socket
  • Bulging of the eye
  • Change in the way the eye moves within the socket

Pain is rare unless the tumor has grown extensively outside the eye.
However, some of these may be caused due to less serious ailments as well. Do go to the doctor if you have any of the symptoms.

What are the general causes of Eye Cancer?

Some of the causes and risk-factors for eye cancer include:

Eye melanoma
  • Race/ethnicity : More common in caucasians
  • Eye color: Melanoma more like in light-coloured eyes
  • Certain inherited conditions : People with dysplastic nevus syndrome
Eye lymphoma
  • Weakened immune system.

Can Eye Cancer be prevented?

Most eye cancers can be prevented by decreasing a person’s exposure to the risk factors listed under the “Causes” section.

What are the stages of eye cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor  has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In eye cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to eyes (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of eye cancer?

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

Can eye Cancer be detected early?

Given the rarity of the cancer, there are no routine tests to detect it early. However, those with a weakened immune system and/or dysplastic nevus syndrome should go for regular checkups.

What are the Treatments available?

There are different treatments for different stages.

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Laser therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

A combination of these treatments may also be used at times.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section , you should probably visit a doctor.

Endometrial Cancer

What is Endometrial Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start at the endometrium (inner lining of uterus), they cause endometrial cancer.

Anatomy of Endometrium

endomentrial

What are the general symptoms of Endometrial Cancer?

  • Unusual vaginal bleeding, spotting, or other discharge
  • Pelvic pain and/or mass and weight loss

What are the general causes of Endometrial cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

 

Factors that influence the risk of endometrial cancer include:

  • Things that affect hormone levels, like taking estrogen after menopause, birth control pills, or tamoxifen; the number of menstrual cycles (over a lifetime), pregnancy, obesity, certain ovarian tumors, and polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Use of an intrauterine device
  • Age
  • Diet and exercise
  • Diabetes
  • Family history (having close relatives with endometrial or colorectal cancer)
  • Having been diagnosed with breast or ovarian cancer in the past
  • Having been diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia in the past
  • Treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis to treat another cancer

Can Endometrial Cancer be prevented?

Endometrial cancer be prevented to a certain extent by avoiding the risk factors.

 

What are the stages of Endometrial cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In Endometrial cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to the origin of the cancer (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

 

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

 

Survival rates on of Endometrial cancer?

Needless to say, if the endometrial cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

 

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Endometrial Cancer be detected early?

Noticing any signs and symptoms of endometrial cancer, and reporting them right away to your doctor allows early diagnosis.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment options for women include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Hormonal therapy
  • Chemotherapy

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor.
 

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Kidney Cancer

What is Kidney Cancer?

An abnormal growth of cells that starts invading the normal cells around it is called Cancer. When these abnormal tumor cells are present in the kidneys, they lead to kidney cancer. These are malignant tumours. Cancer cells can also cause benign tumors sometimes grow large enough to cause problems, but they do not grow into nearby tissues or spread to distant parts of the body.

 

What are the general symptoms of Kidney Cancer?

Symptoms for kidney cancer may not appear until it’s too late. However, some of the common signs and symptoms are as follows:

  • Blood in the urine (hematuria)
  • Low back pain on one side (not caused by injury)
  • A mass (lump) on the side or lower back
  • Fatigue (tiredness)
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss not caused by dieting
  • Fever that is not caused by an infection and that doesn’t go away
  • Anaemia (low red blood cell counts)

However, some of these may be caused due to less serious ailments as well. Do go to the doctor if you have any of the symptoms.

What are the general causes of Kidney cancer?

Some of the causes and risk-factors for kidney cancer include:

    • Smoking
    • Obesity
    • Advanced kidney disease poses a higher risk
    • Gender: twice as common in men
    • Genetic and hereditary risk factors: People who have the conditions listed here have a much higher risk for getting kidney cancer, although they account for only a small portion of cases overall.

a)  von Hippel-Lindau disease

b)  Hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma

c)  Hereditary leiomyoma-renal cell carcinoma

d)  Birt-Hogg-Dube (BHD) syndrome

e)  Familial renal cancer

f)  Hereditary renal oncocytoma

Can Kidney Cancer be prevented?

Most kidney cancers can be prevented by decreasing a person’s exposure to the risk factors listed under the “Causes” section.

What are the stages of kidney cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In kidney cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to kidneys (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of kidney cancer?

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

Can kidney Cancer be detected early?

Most kidney cancers can be found early.

 

What are the Treatments available?

There are different treatments for different stages.

  • Surgery
  • Ablation and other local therapies
  • Active surveillance
  • Radiation therapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Immunotherapy(biologic therapy)
  • Chemotherapy

A combination of these treatments may also be used at times.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section , you should probably visit a doctor.

Liver Cancer

What is Liver Cancer?

An abnormal growth of cells that starts invading the normal cells around it is called Cancer. When these abnormal tumor cells are present in the livers, they lead to liver cancer. These are malignant tumours. Cancer cells can also cause benign tumors sometimes grow large enough to cause problems, but they do not grow into nearby tissues or spread to distant parts of the body. The patient can usually be cured with surgery.

Anatomy of Liver

liver cancer

Copyright © Terese Winslow, U.S. Govt, The above image is used for educational purpose only.

What are the general symptoms of Liver Cancer?

Though the symptoms for Liver Cancer usually don’t appear before a later stage, sometimes they may show up earlier. This would help in early diagnosis, when treatment is most likely to be helpful.

SYMPTOMS

  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Feeling very full after a small meal
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • An enlarged liver
  • An enlarged spleen
  • Pain in the abdomen or near the right shoulder blade
  • Swelling or fluid build-up in the abdomen
  • Itching
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)

OTHER SYMPTOMS

  • Fever
  • Enlarged veins on the stomach that can be seen through the skin
  • Abnormal bruising or bleeding.

These signs and symptoms of liver cancer can also be caused by other conditions, including other liver problems. However, it's important to get it checked so that the cause can be treated!

What are the general causes of Liver cancer?

Some of the causes and risk-factors for liver Cancer include:

  • Gender: Hepato-cellular carcinoma is much more common in males than in females.
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Chronic viral hepatitis : The most common risk factor for liver cancer is chronic (long-term) infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV).
  • Cirrhosis: Cirrhosis is a disease in which liver cells become damaged and are replaced by scar tissue.
  • Heavy alcohol use
  • Obesity
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Inherited metabolic diseases
  • Aflatoxins
  • Anabolic steroids
  • Arsenic in water
  • Infection with parasites
  • Tobacco use

Can Liver Cancer be prevented?

Most liver cancers can be prevented by decreasing a person’s exposure to the risk factors listed under the “Causes” section.

  • Avoiding and treating hepatitis infections – Having sex with someone who already has it, having multiple sex partners, visiting a country where Hepatitis is common, being born to a mother who has HBV can make you prone to the Hepatitis virus and hence, Liver Cancer.
  • Limiting alcohol and tobacco use
  • Getting to and staying at a healthy weight
  • Limiting exposure to cancer-causing chemicals- Such as aflatoxins, arsenic and so on.

Also,  inherited diseases can cause cirrhosis of the liver, increasing a person’s risk for liver cancer. It’s always best to see if you have a natural risk factor for liver cancer in your genes.

What are the stages of liver cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In liver cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to livers (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

 

Survival rates on of liver cancer?

Needless to say, if the liver cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

“For all stages combined, the relative 5-year survival rate from liver cancer is about 15%. Part of the reason for this low survival rate is that most patients with liver cancer also have other liver problems such as cirrhosis, which itself can be fatal.

In general, survival rates are higher for people who can have surgery to remove their cancer, regardless of the stage.” – cancer.org

Can liver Cancer be detected early?

Your medical history and a physical exam to check for risk factors can help determine, to some extent, whether you have or are prone to liver cancer.

If symptoms and/or the results of the physical exam suggest you might have liver cancer, other tests will probably be done.

IMAGING TESTS

These include:

  • Ultrasound
  • CT Scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Angiography
  • Bone scan

OTHER TESTS AND PROCEDURES

If the medical professional believes that you have cancer but the Imaging tests have proved to be inconclusive, he or she may suggest other tests as well:

  • Laparoscopy
  • Biopsy

LAB TESTS

These may be done to detect cancer, review your health during and post-treatment and so on.

  • Alpha-fetoprotein blood (AFP) test -Levels in the blood of adults can signify liver disease, liver cancer, or other cancers.
  • Other blood tests
  • Liver function tests (LFTs)
  • Blood clotting tests
  • Tests for viral hepatitis
  • Kidney function tests
  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Blood chemistry tests and other tests

What are the Treatments available?

Liver cancers may be categorized as: potentially resectable or transplantable, unresectable, inoperable with only local disease, and advanced. There are different treatments for different stages.

POTENTIALLY RESECTABLE OR TRANSPLANTABLE LIVER CANCER

Potentially resectable: If a cancer is at an early stage (stage I and some stage II) and the rest of the liver is healthy, Surgery would be good option.
Potentially transplantable: Doctors resort to liver transplants if the cancer is at an early stage but the rest of the liver is not healthy, or if the tumour is embedded deep in the liver.

UNRESECTABLE LIVER CANCER

These haven’t extended to lymph nodes or distant sites. However, they can’t be removed safely by surgery because

  • The tumor is too large
  • The tumor is in a part of the liver that makes it hard to remove
  • There are several tumors or the cancer has spread throughout the liver

Treatment options include

  • Ablation,
  • Embolization
  • Targeted therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy

Sometimes, the treatment may shrink the tumor enough so that surgery is possible again.
These treatments won’t cure the cancer, but they can reduce symptoms and may even help you live longer.

INOPERABLE WITH ONLY LOCAL DISEASE

Sometimes, the patient isn’t healthy enough to be operated on. In such cases there are other treatments available:

  • Ablation,
  • Embolization
  • Targeted therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy

ADVANCED (METASTATIC) LIVER CANCERS

These cannot be treated with surgery due to the extent to which they have spread.
Clinical trials of targeted therapies, chemotherapy , radiation therapy, and other new treatments may help.

Recurrent liver cancer

Cancer that comes back after treatment is called recurrent. These can be small, localized ones or widespread. Treatment will depend on the state and stage of the recurring cancer.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section , you should probably visit a doctor. You can also get your genetic make-up checked to see if you are prone to liver cancer or not.

Lung Cancer

What is Lung Cancer?

An abnormal growth of cells that starts invading the normal cells around it is called Cancer. When these abnormal tumor cells are present in the lungs, they lead to lung cancer. There are three main types of lung cancer.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer :

  • Most common type of lung cancer. About 85% of lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancers.
  • Subtypes: Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma

Small Cell Lung Cancer (Oat Cell Cancer)

  • About 10%-15% of lung cancers are small cell lung cancers.
  • Tends to spread quickly.

Lung Carcinoid Tumor (Lung Neuroendocrine Tumors)

  • Fewer than 5% of lung cancers are lung carcinoid tumors.
  • Grow slowly and rarely spread.

Each type has different treatment options treatment options. Hence, if you aren’t sure which type you have, ask your doctor so you can get the right information

Anatomy of Lung

lung cancer

What are the general causes of Lung cancer?

Most lung cancers do not cause any symptoms until they have spread too far to be cured, but sometimes, we do get symptoms at an early stage.

The most common symptoms include:

  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum (spit or phlegm)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Recurring and persistent cough that may or may not get worse
  • Chest pain that worsens with deep breathing, coughing, or laughing
  • Hoarseness
  • Feeling tired or weak
  • Infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia that don’t go away or keep coming back
  • New onset of wheezing

If lung cancer spreads to distant organs, it may cause:

  • Bone pain
  • Nervous system changes
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), from cancer spread to the liver
  • Lumps near the surface of the body, due to cancer spreading to the skin or to lymph nodes

These symptoms are more likely to be caused by conditions other than lung cancer. Still, it’s important to see your doctor right away so the cause can be found and treated, if needed.

Can Lung Cancer be prevented?

Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may lower risk but it does not mean that you will not get cancer.
Different ways to prevent cancer include:

  • Changing lifestyle or eating habits.
  • Avoiding things known to cause cancer.
  • Treating a precancerous condition.

What are the stages of lung cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor  has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In lung cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to lungs (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of lung cancer?

Needless to say, if the lung cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can lung Cancer be detected early?

Lung Cancer can be detected early via screening. Screening is done at the diagnostic stage to check for hidden symptoms.
This stage includes:

  • Physical exam and history
  • Lab test
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Chest X-ray
  • CT Scan
  • Biopsy
  • Sputum cytology

However they have certain risks:

  • False-negative test results can occur.
  • False-positive test results can occur.
  • Chest x-rays and low-dose spiral CT scans expose the chest to radiation.

But it’s best to know for sure! Talk to your doctor about your risk for lung cancer and your need for screening tests. Better sure than wary!

What are the Treatments available?

For most small cell and non-small cell lung cancer patients, current treatments do not completely cure the cancer. However, it may be kept in check through:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Avoidance of risk factors
  • Healthy habits

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section , you should probably visit a doctor. You can also get your genetic make-up checked to see if you are prone to lung cancer or not.

Lung carcinoid tumour

What is Lung carcinoid tumour?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs.A Lung carcinoid tumour is a type of Lung Cancer, i.e. the abnormal cells start in the lung. However, it grows much slower than other lung cancers.

Anatomy of Lung

Lung Carcinoid Cancer

What are the general symptoms of Lung carcinoid tumour?

  • Central carcinoids
    • Cough, which can sometimes be bloody
    • Wheezing
    • Shortness of breath
    • Chest pain, especially when taking deep breaths
  • Peripheral carcinoids
    • Rarely cause any symptoms
    • If there are too many, it may lead to breathing trouble.
  • Carcinoid syndrome:
    • Facial flushing (redness and warm feeling)
    • Diarrhea
    • Wheezing
    • Fast heartbeat.
  • Cushing syndrome:
    • Weight gain
    • Easy bruising
    • Weakness
    • Drowsiness
    • High blood sugar (or even diabetes)
    • High blood pressure
    • Increased body and facial hair

What are the general causes of Lung carcinoid tumour cancer?

Every type of cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

  • Gender - women more prone than men
  • Age - found in people around 60 years of age.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
  • Tobacco smoke

Can Lung carcinoid tumour be prevented?

Lung carcinoid tumour can be prevented to a certain extent by avoiding the risk factors.

What are the stages of Lung carcinoid tumour?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In lung carcinoid tumour, the stage depends on whether it is confined to the origin of the cancer (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

 

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Lung carcinoid tumour?

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal. For all cases of lung carcinoid tumour cancer combined.  However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Lung carcinoid tumour be detected early?

Noticing any signs and symptoms of lung carcinoid tumour, and reporting them right away to your doctor allows early diagnosis. Since carcinoid tumours grow slowly, it is relatively easier to diagnose them at an early stage.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the tumour and other factors, primary treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Other drug treatments
  • Radiation therapy

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor.

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Lymphoma of the skin

What is Lymphoma of the skin?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs.Lymphoma is a cancer that starts in cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body’s immune system. When lymphoma occurs in the skin, it is known as Lymphoma of the skin.
There are two types:

 

  • Hodgkin lymphoma (also known as Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, or Hodgkin’s disease)
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which includes all other lymphomas, including all skin lymphomas

What are the general symptoms of Lymphoma of the skin?

Lymphomas of the skin are usually visible. They can appear as:

 

  • Small, pimple-like lesions (papules)
  • Flat lesions (patches)
  • Thick, raised or lowered lesions (plaques)
  • Larger lumps or bumps under the skin (nodules or tumors)

In addition, general symptoms include:

 

  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fever
  • Profuse sweating (enough to soak clothing), particularly at night
  • Severe itchiness

What are the general causes of Lymphoma of the skin?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

 

Risk factors:

 

  • Age – While it usually appears in people in the age range of 50-60 or older, certain types of lymphoma can occur in younger people, including children.
  • Gender – More common in men.
  • Weakened immune system
  • Infections

Can Lymphoma of the skin be prevented?

Lymphoma of the skin be prevented to a certain extent by avoiding the risk factors.

What are the stages of Lymphoma of the skin?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In Lymphoma of the skin, the stage depends on whether it is confined to the origin of the cancer (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

 

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Lymphoma of the skin?

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

 

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Lymphoma of the skin be detected early?

Since lymphoma of the skin affects well, the skin, the changes are easily noticeable. However, most of the times it takes time to be diagnosed because the signs and symptoms are similar to other skin problems and infections.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment optionsinclude:

  • Treatments directed only at the skin
  • Treatments that can affect the whole body (systemic treatments)

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor.

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Melanoma Skin Cancer

What is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start at the skin, they cause skin cancer. Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the melanocytes. Other names for this cancer include malignant melanoma and cutaneous melanoma.

What are the general symptoms of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

New spots on the skin that change shape, size or colour or look different from your other spots, are the most prominent warning signs. The ABCDE rule is another guide to the usual signs of melanoma.

  • A is for Asymmetry: One half of a mole or birthmark does not match the other.
  • B is for Border:The edges are irregular, ragged, notched, or blurred.
  • C is for Color:The color is not the same all over.
  • D is for Diameter:The spot is larger than 6 millimeters across (about ¼ inch – the size of a pencil eraser), although melanomas can sometimes be smaller than this.
  • E is for Evolving: The mole is changing in size, shape, or color.

Other warning signs are:

  • A sore that does not heal
  • Spread of pigment from the border of a spot into surrounding skin
  • Redness or a new swelling beyond the border
  • Change in sensation – itchiness, tenderness, or pain
  • Change in the surface of a mole – scaliness, oozing, bleeding, or the appearance of a bump or nodule

What are the general causes of Melanoma Skin cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

  • Ultraviolet (UV) light exposure - Thought to be the major risk factor for most skin cancers. Sunlight is the main source of UV rays. Tanning beds are another source of UV rays.
  • Having light-colored skin increases chances of developing Skin Cancer
  • Older age - The risk of getting Melanoma cell skin cancers rises as people get older.
  • Male gender
  • Multiple or unusual moles
  • Previous skin cancer
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) - This very rare inherited condition reduces the ability of skin cells to repair DNA damage caused by sun exposure.
  • Weakened immune system

Can Melanoma Skin Cancer be prevented?

The best ways to lower your risk of skin cancer are to avoid the risk factors.

 

What are the stages of Melanoma Skin cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In Skin cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to Skin (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates of Melanoma Skin cancer?

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

 

Can Melanoma Skin Cancer be detected early?

Melanoma Skin Cancer can be detected early with screening or even, simply with a self-exam where you take note of the changes on your skin.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options may include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Immunotherapy

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

 

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor.

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Non-small cell lung Cancer

What is Non-small cell lung Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start at the lung, they cause lung cancer. Of these, About 85% to 90% of lung cancers are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There are 3 main subtypes of NSCLC:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Large cell carcinoma

What are the general symptoms of Non-small cell lung Cancer?

Most common symptoms of lung cancer are:

  • Persistent cough that may worsen
  • Chest pain
  • Hoarseness
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Coughing up blood or rust-colored sputum (spit or phlegm)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Feeling tired or weak
  • Infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia that don’t go away or keep coming back
  • New onset of wheezing

When lung cancer spreads to distant organs, it may cause:

  • Bone pain (like pain in the back or hips)
  • Neurologic changes
  • Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
  •  Lumps near the surface of the body

What are the general causes of Non-small cell lung cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

  • Tobacco smoke
  • Radon
  • Asbestos
  • Air pollution
  • Radiation therapy to the lungs
  • Arsenic in drinking water
  • Personal or family history of lung cancer

Can Non-small cell lung Cancer be prevented?

It can be prevented to a certain extent by avoiding the risk factors.

What are the stages of Non-small cell lung cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In Non-small cell lung cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to the origin of the cancer (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

 

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Non-small cell lung cancer? – Please advise (This is the same as breast cancer)

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

 

Medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Non-small cell lung Cancer be detected early?

The best bet is to pay attention to the signs and symptom s as there are currently no routine tests for non-small cell lung cancer detection.

“Usually symptoms of lung cancer do not appear until the disease is already in an advanced, non-curable stage. Even when symptoms of lung cancer do appear, many people may mistake them for other problems” – www.cancer.org

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapies
  • Immunotherapy

Palliative procedures can also be used to help with symptoms.

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section , you should probably visit a doctor.

 

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Oesophagus Cancer

What is Oesophagus Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start in the oesophagus, they cause oesophagus cancer.

Anatomy of Oesophagus

oesophagus Cancer

What are the general symptoms of Oesophagus Cancer?

Most common symptoms are:

  • Pain/difficulty when swallowing
  • Weight loss
  • Pain behind the breastbone
  • Hoarseness and cough
  • Indigestion and heartburn

What are the general causes of Oesophagus cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

  • Tobacco use
  • Heavy alcohol use
  • Barrett esophagus
  •  Older age
  • Being male

Can Oesophagus Cancer be prevented?

It can be prevented to a certain extent by avoiding the risk factors.

 

What are the stages of Oesophagus cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In Oesophagus cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to the origin of the cancer (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

 

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

 

Survival rates on of Oesophagus cancer? – Please advise (This is the same as breast cancer)

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

 

Medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Oesophagus Cancer be detected early?

The best bet is to pay attention to the signs and symptoms. Some tests may help detect the cancer at an early stage. These include:

  • Physical exam and history
  • Chest x-ray
  • Barium swallow
  • Oesophagoscopy
  • Biopsy

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment options include:

    • Surgery
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Targetted therapy
    • Endoscopic treatments

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section , you should probably visit a doctor.
 

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Oral Cancer

What is Oral Cancer?

The uncontrolled growth of mutated cells in the oral region is called Oral Cancer. The term Oral Cancer includes cancers of the mouth and the pharynx. It encompasses the lips, the inside lining of the lips and cheeks, the teeth, the gums, most of the tongue, the bottom of the mouth, and the bony roof of the mouth, or hard palate.

  • Squamous cell carcinoma: The throat and mouth are lined with flat and scale-like squamous cells. Cancer in this region is called squamous cell carcinoma and it accounts for more than 90 percent of the Oral Cancers.
  • Verrucous carcinoma: About 5 percent of all oral cavity tumors are verrucous carcinoma, which is a type of very slow-growing cancer made up of squamous cells.
  • Minor salivary gland carcinomas: This includes several kinds of Oral Cancer that can develop on the minor salivary glands, found throughout the lining of the mouth and throat. It includes:
    • Adenoid cystic carcinoma,
    • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma,
    • Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma.

Lymphomas: Oral Cancers that develop in lymph tissue are known as lymphomas. The tonsils and base of the tongue both contain lymphoid tissue.

Anatomy of Mouth

Oral Cancer

What are the general symptoms of Oral Cancer?

The symptoms of oral cancer may include:

  • A persistent red or white patch on the gums, tongue, tonsil, or lining of the mouth.
  • Constant pain in the mouth.
  • Having a sore throat or mouth sore for a long time.
  • Difficulty in swallowing or chewing.
  • A lump or thickening in the cheek or neck.
  • Numbness in the mouth.
  • Unexplained bleeding.
  • Frequent pain in the ear (rare).
  • Persistent bad breath.
  • Weight loss.
  • Difficulty moving the jaw or tongue.
  • Irregular Voice changes.

What are the general causes of Oral Cancer?

Oral Cancer may at times develop in patients without any prominent causative. But the following risk factors increase the probability of occurrence of the disease.

  • Smoking – 60 % of the cases of Oral Cancer are caused by smoking. Smoking highly increases the risk of developing mouth and oropharyngeal cancer.
  • Alcohol – Drinking alcohol increases risk of mouth and oropharyngeal cancer, especially when combined with smoking. 30 % of Oral Cancers are caused by drinking alcohol.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) – It is a sexually transmitted disease. HPV 16 and HPV 18 highly increase the risk of Oral Cancer.
  • Chewing tobacco or betel quid – Chewing tobacco or betel quid (gutkha) is known to cause mouth and oropharyngeal cancer.
  •  Diet – Lack of vitamins and minerals, such as iron or folic acid, in the diet may result in the development of Oral Cancer.
  • Family history – Geneticconditions and earlier instances of the disease in the family increases the risk.
  • Gender – Men are twice as likely to develop Oral Cancer as women.
  • Ultraviolet light: Excessive sun exposure increases the risk of lips cancer.
  • Age – Oral cancers are more common among people above 50 years.
  • Immune system– Immune systems weakened by certain medications can easily be attacked.

Can Oral Cancer be prevented?

Not all cases of Oral cavity and oropharyngeal Cancer can be prevented, but the risk of developing these Cancers can be greatly reduced by avoiding certain risk factors.

  • Avoid the use tobacco in any form.
  • Limit the use of alcohol.
  • Stay out of the sun.
  • Eat lots of fruits and vegetables and maintain a healthy diet.
  • Avoid HPV infection.
  • Treat pre-cancerous growths.

What are the stages of Oral Cancer?

The most common system used for staging Oral Cancer is TNM staging.

  • Tumor (T) describes the size of the original tumor.
  • Node (N) indicates whether the cancer is present in the lymph nodes.
  • Metastasis (M) refers to whether cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

A number (0-4) or the letter X is assigned to each factor. A higher number indicates increasing severity. The letter X means the information could not be assessed. Once the T, N and M scores have been assigned, an overall stage is assigned. The stages range from 0 to 4:

  • Stage 0: The tumor has not invaded tissue beyond you the origin and is not more than 2cm long.
  • Stage 1: The tumor is less than 4 cm.
  • Stage 2: The tumor is slightly larger than 4 cm, but still limited to the area of origin.
  • Stage 3: The tumor has grown and spread to nearby tissues and organs.
  • Stage 4: The tumor has spread to your lymph nodes or distant organs.

Survival rates of Oral Cancer?

The survival rate and diagnosis usually go hand in hand. If the symptoms and stage of throat cancer are discovered earlier, the individual will have a greater chance of survival. The 5-year relative survival rates for Oral Cancers are:

  • 83% for cancer that has not spread
  • 62% for cancer that has spread to nearby lymph nodes
  • 38% for cancer that has spread to distant parts of the body

Can Oral Cancer be detected early?

With the development of science and technology, today there are several tests that aid in the diagnosis of Oral Cancer. These tests include:

  • Physical exam: The lips and mouth areas are examined to look for abnormalities — areas of irritation, such as sores and white patches.
  • X-rays of the mouth and throat, including CAT (computed tomography) scans
  • PET scans (positron emission tomography) - It uses radioactive materials to identify excessive activity in an organ.
  • Biopsy: A small sample of tissue is removed from a tumor to diagnose cancer. Oral Cancer usually requires a biopsy. There are different methods to obtain a biopsy:
    • Fine Need Aspiration (FNA) biopsy. A thin needle is inserted into the tumor mass and a sample is aspirated (drawn out by suction) into a syringe.
    • Incisional biopsy. A sample is removed with a scalpel (surgical knife).
    • Punch biopsy. A small circular blade removes a round area of tissue.
  • Image Testing: A variety of imaging tests may help determine whether cancer has spread beyond your mouth. Imaging tests may include X-rays, computerized tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, among others.

What are the Treatments available?

Today there are several treatments that can cure Oral Cancer and increase the life expectancy of the patients. Some of the common treatments are surgery, radiation therapy.

Surgery

Tumor resection involves an operation to remove the entire tumor. Minimally invasive surgical techniques are used to treat the cancer. Neck dissection removes any cancer cells that may have spread to the lymph nodes. Once the surgery is done, a surgery to reconstruct the mouth might be conducted.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy stops cancer cells from dividing and slows the growth of the tumor. Radiotherapy also destroys cancer cells and can shrink or eliminate tumors. Radiation therapy involves 5-6 weeks of daily treatments.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses anticancer drugs to destroy cancer cells throughout the body. It may be an option if the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. Chemotherapy is prescribed for different reasons:

  • Chemoradiation – A combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy as an alternative to surgery.
  • After surgery to decrease the risk of the cancer returning
  • Palliative treatment - To slow the growth of a tumor and control symptoms when the cancer cannot be cured.

Targeted drug therapy

Targeted drug therapy targets cancerous cells to interfere with cell growth on a molecular level. Cetuximab is one targeted therapy approved for treating head and neck cancers in certain situations. Cetuximab stops the action of a protein that's found in many types of healthy cells, but is more prevalent in certain types of cancer cells. Targeted drugs can be used in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy.   

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

Visiting a doctor for regular mouth check up is recommended. If you spot any of the symptoms or have high risks of the disease then periodic diagnosis aids in detecting the cancer at early stage.

How can I as a patient know it early?

Being aware of the causatives and symptoms helps in identifying the signs of the disease.

Ovarian Cancer

What is Ovarian Cancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start in the ovaries, they cause ovarian cancer.

Anatomy of female reproductive system

Ovarian Cancer

What are the general symptoms of Ovarian Cancer?

Most common symptoms for ovarian cancer include:

  • Bloating
  • Pelvic or abdominal pain
  • Trouble eating or feeling full quickly
  • Urinary symptoms such as urgency (always feeling like you have to go) or frequency (having to go often)
  • Fatigue
  • Upset stomach
  • Back pain
  • Pain during sex
  • Constipation
  • Menstrual changes
  • Abdominal swelling with weight loss

What are the general causes of Ovarian cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

  • Age- Ovarian cancer usually occurs in women over 40
  • Obesity
  • Fertility drugs - In some studies, researchers have found that using the fertility drug clomiphene citrate (Clomid®) for longer than one year may increase the risk for developing ovarian tumors. – www.cancer.org
  • Androgens
  • Estrogen therapy and hormone therapy
  • Family history of ovarian cancer, breast cancer, or colorectal cancer

Can Ovarian Cancer be prevented?

It can be prevented to a certain extent by avoiding the risk factors.

 

What are the stages of Ovarian cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

 

In Ovarian cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to the origin of the cancer (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

 

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

 

Survival rates on of Ovarian cancer?

Needless to say, if the ovarian cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

 

Medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Ovarian Cancer be detected early?

The best bet is to pay attention to the signs and symptoms. About 20% of ovarian cancers are found early. To stay on the safe side, it is advisable to

  • Go for regular women’s health check-ups
  • Visit a doctor in case of symptoms
  • Get screening tests

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Radiation therapy

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor.
 
All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Pancreatic Cancer

What is PancreaticCancer?

Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. When such cells start in the pancreas, they cause pancreatic cancer. However, not all cancer cells are malignant. Some are benign. That is, they may grow in size but do not spread and invade other cells.

Anatomy ofPancreas

pancreas cancer

Copyright © Terese Winslow, U.S. Govt, The above image is used for educational purpose only.

What are the general symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer?

In the early stages, the cancer doesn’t usually show any signs or symptoms. By the time the symptoms are visible, the cancer has already spread beyond the pancreas..

  • Jaundice and related symptoms
    • Dark urine
    • Light-colored stools
    • Itchy skin
  • Abdominal or back pain
  • Weight loss and poor appetite
  • Digestive problems
    • Pale, greasy stools
    • Nausea and vomiting
  • Gallbladder enlargement
  • Blood clots
  • Fatty tissue abnormalities
  • Diabetes

What are the general causes of Pancreatic cancer?

The exact cause of Pancreatic Cancer is debatable. However, certain risk factors have been recognized.

Lifestyle risk factors

Tobacco use: The risk of getting pancreatic cancer is about twice as high among smokers compared to those who have never smoked.

Overweight and obesity: Very overweight (obese) people are about 20% more likely to develop pancreatic cancer. Extra weight around the waistline may be a risk factor even in people who are not very overweight.

Workplace exposure to certain chemicals: Heavy exposure at work to certain pesticides, dyes, and chemicals used in metal refining may increase the risk of developing pancreatic cancer.

Natural risk factors

Age: Almost all patients are older than 45

Gender: Men are about 30% more likely to develop pancreatic cancer than women.

Race: African Americans are more likely to develop pancreatic cancer than whites.

Family history: Pancreatic cancer seems to run in some families.

Genetic syndromes: Inherited gene changes (mutations) can be passed from parent to child. These abnormal genes may cause as many as 10% of pancreatic cancers and can cause other problems as well.

Diabetes: Pancreatic cancer is more common in people who have diabetes.In some people, though, the cancer seems to have caused the diabetes. This can happen when cancer spreads through the pancreas and damages enough of the insulin-making cells to cause diabetes.

Chronic pancreatitis :This condition is linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, but most people with pancreatitis never develop pancreatic cancer.

Cirrhosis of the liver

Stomach problems: Infection of the stomach with the ulcer-causing bacteria Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may increase the risk of getting pancreatic cancer.

Can Pancreatic Cancer be prevented?

The best way to lower your risk of pancreatic cancer is to avoid the above risk factors and/or get an early diagnosis, with regard to natural factors.

What are the stages of Pancreatic cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In Pancreatic cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to Pancreasor whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Pancreaticcancer? – Please advise (This is the same as breast cancer)

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

 However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Pancreatic Cancer be detected early?

Pancreatic Cancer is difficult to detect early. This is partially due to the location of the pancreas in the body. By the time the symptoms are visible, it has already spread beyond the pancreas. However, through genetic tests, one may find out whether one is at an increased risk of developing Pancreatic Cancer. If yes, the doctor might suggest other tests to detect the Cancer early.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, primary treatment options include:

  • Surgery
  • Ablative techniques
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy and other drugs

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor. A genetic test would also help.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor.
 

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Penile Cancer

What is Penile Cancer?

Penile cancer develops in or on the penis. Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs.

What are the general symptoms of Penile Cancer?

  • Skin changes
    • An area of skin becoming thicker and/or changing color
    • A lump on the penis
    • An ulcer (sore) that might bleed
    • A reddish, velvety rash
    • Small, crusty bumps
    • Flat, bluish-brown growths
    • Smelly discharge (fluid) under the foreskin
  • Swelling
  • Lumps under the skin in the groin area

What are the general causes of Penile cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

  • Smoking
  • UV light treatment of psoriasis
  • Age: The older you are, the more prone you are.
  • AIDS
  • Not being circumcised
  • HPV infection

Can Penile Cancer be prevented?

Penile cancer can be prevented to a great degree by avoiding the risk factors. Genital hygiene, restraint from smoking and avoidance of HPV infection help a great degree.

What are the stages of Penile cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In Penile cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to the penis (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Penile cancer?

Needless to say, if the cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Penile Cancer be detected early?

Most penile cancers can be detected early since they usually start by affecting the skin.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options may include:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Local therapy
  • Chemotherapy

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section , you should probably visit a doctor.

All matter is for informational purposes only and has been collated from www.cancer.gov and www.cancer.org. Zuvius Lifesciences does not claim authorship of the above.

Prostate Cancer

What is ProstateCancer?

The prostate gland is only found in males. Hence, Prostate Cancer can only occur in males. Cancer is the growth of abnormal cells that take over neighbouring cells and tissues and, at later stages, also spread to organs. In Prostate Cancer, such cells start out in the prostate.

Anatomy of Prostate

prostate cancer

What are the general symptoms of Prostate Cancer?

Prostate cancer, at its early stage, usually causes no symptoms. But more advanced prostate cancers can sometimes cause symptoms, such as:

  • Problems passing urine, including a slow or weak urinary stream or the need to urinate more often, especially at night.
  • Blood in the urine
  • Trouble getting an erection
  • Pain in the hips, back (spine), chest (ribs)
  • Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet
  • Lloss of bladder or bowel control from cancer pressing on the spinal cord.

What are the general causes of Prostate cancer?

Every type of Cancer has risk factors, but they don’t tell us everything. Many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

Some risk factors for Prostate Cancer include:

Age :  older men, above 40 are more prone to it.

Race/ethnicity : more common in African-American and Caribbean men

Geography : It is less common in Asia, Africa, Central America, and South America.

Family history : Prostate cancer seems to run in some families, which suggests that in some cases there may be an inherited or genetic factor.

Gene changes : Including inherited mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes raises chances of developing prostate cancer and men with Lynch syndrome have an increased risk for a number of cancers, including prostate cancer.

Diet : Men who eat a lot of red meat or high-fat dairy products and fewer fruits and vegetables appear to have a slightly higher chance of getting prostate cancer. Doctors aren’t sure which of these factors is responsible for raising the risk.

Workplace exposures : Firefighters are exposed to substances (toxic combustion products) that may increase their risk of prostate cancer.

Can Prostate Cancer be prevented?

The exact cause of Prostate Cancer is currently unknown. Hence, at this time it is not possible to prevent most cases of the disease. Natural and genetic factors are uncontrollable, but there are some precautions one may be able to take.

Diet:

  • Eat at least 2½ cups of a wide variety of vegetables and fruits each day.
  • Be physically active.
  • Stay at a healthy weight.
  • Vitamin, mineral, and other supplements - Before starting vitamins or other supplements, talk with your doctor as they can have both risks and benefits.

Medicines:

Some drugs might help reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

5-alpha reductase inhibitors - Unclear if the benefits will outweigh the risks for most men. Still, men who want to know more about these drugs should discuss them with their doctors.

Aspirin- Some research suggests that men who take aspirin daily for a long time might have a lower risk of getting and dying from prostate cancer. Again, please discuss the benefits-risk ratio with your doctor.

What are the stages of Prostate cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor  has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In Prostate cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to Prostates (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Prostate cancer?

Please advise (This is the same as breast cancer)

Can Prostate Cancer be detected early?

It is possible to detect Prostate Cancer early:

  • By testing the amount of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a man’s blood.
  • By taking digital rectal exam (DRE) - the doctor puts a gloved finger into the rectum to feel the prostate gland.

If the results of either one of these tests are abnormal, further testing is needed to see if there is a cancer. There are both pros and cons to the prostate cancer screening tests in use today. It is advisable to get into a discussion with your doctor, and heed your own views on the benefits and side effects of prostate cancer screening and treatment.

What are the Treatments available?

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men (after skin cancer), but it can often be treated successfully. But think about the treatment you want to opt for. Go for a second opinion if you feel te need to. Depending on the situation, the treatment options for men with prostate cancer might include:

  • Expectant management (watchful waiting) or active surveillance
  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Cryosurgery (cryotherapy)
  • Hormone therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Vaccine treatment
  • Bone-directed treatment

These treatments are generally used one at a time, although in some cases they may be combined.
Do take into account:

  • Your age and expected life span
  • Any other serious health conditions you have
  • The stage and grade of your cancer
  • Your feelings (and your doctor’s opinion) about the need to treat the cancer right away
  • The likelihood that each type of treatment will cure your cancer (or help in some other way)
  • Your feelings about the possible side effects from each treatment

So, don’t worry. Just discuss your doubts with your doctor.

Is there curative treatment for Prostate Cancer?

Please advise. Should we redirect them to the treatment section?.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should probably visit a doctor.

Sinus Cancer

What is Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer?

The nasal cavity is the space just behind the nose through which air passes to the throat. The Paranasal Sinuses are air-filled areas that surround the nasal cavity. There are several Paranasal Sinuses named after the bones that surround them:

  • Frontal Sinuses are in the lower forehead above the nose.
  • Maxillary Sinuses are in the cheekbones on either side of the nose.
  • Ethmoid Sinuses  are beside the upper nose, between the eyes.
  • Sphenoid Sinuses are behind the nose, in the center of the skull.

Nasal cavity and paranasal Sinus Cancer begins when healthy cells in the nasal area grows out of control, forming a mass called a tumor. A tumor can be malignant or benign. A malignant tumor is cancerous, which means it can grow and spread to other parts of the body. Sinus Cancer is categorized into different types depending on the different kind of cells they originate in. The categorization is important as it determines the rate of spread of the disease and the prognosis needed.

The types of Sinus Cancer include:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of nasal cavity and paranasal Sinus Cancer. Squamous cells are flat cells that make up the thin surface layer of the structures of the head and neck.
  • Adenocarcinoma. This is the second most common type of nasal cavity and paranasal Sinus Cancer. It begins in gland cells.
  • Melanoma. Melanoma develops from cells called melanocytes that give the skin its color. It is usually an invasive, fast-growing cancer. However, it only accounts for about 1% of tumors found in this area of the body.
  • Inverting papilloma. These are benign, wart-like growths that may develop into squamous cell carcinoma. Approximately 10% to 15% of these will develop into cancer.
  • Esthesioneuroblastoma. This type of cancer is related to the nerves that control the sense of smell. It occurs on the roof of the nasal cavity and involves a structure called the cribriform plate. The cribriform plate is a bone located deep in the skull between the eyes and the sinuses.
  • Midline granuloma. A group of several unrelated conditions that cause the breakdown of the healthy tissue of the nose, sinuses, and nearby tissues. Some cases are due to immune system problems, and many others are actually a type of lymphoma (see below).
  • Lymphoma. Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system carries lymph, a colorless fluid containing lymphocytes. Lymphoma may develop within the lymph tissue found in the lining of the nasal cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, called the mucosa.
  • Sarcoma. Sarcoma is a type of cancer that begins in muscle, connective tissue, or bone.

Occurrence Rates:

  • 30 to 40% will have it in their maxillary sinuses.
  • 40 to 50% will develop it in their nasal cavity.
  • 10 to 15% will have the cancer in their ethmoid sinuses.

Anatomy of Sinus Cancer

Sinus Cancer

What are the general symptoms of Sinus Cancer?

Possible symptoms of Sinus Cancer include:

  • A lump or sore inside the nose that does not heal.
  • A lump on the face or roof of the mouth.
  • Numbness or tingling in the face.
  • Swelling or other trouble with the eyes, such as double vision or the eyes pointing in different directions.
  • Pain or pressure in the ear.
  • Nasal obstruction or persistent nasal congestion and stuffiness, which is often called sinus congestion 
  • Chronic sinus infections that do not respond to antibiotic treatment.
  • Frequent headaches or pain in the sinus region.
  • Pain or swelling in the face, eyes, or ears.
  • Persistent tearing of the eyes.
  • Bulging of one of the eyes or vision loss.
  • Decreased sense of smell.
  • Pain or numbness in the teeth.
  • Loosening of teeth.
  • A lump on the face, nose, or inside the mouth.
  • Frequent nosebleeds.
  • Difficulty opening the mouth.
  • A lump or sore inside the nose or neck that does not heal.
  • Fatigue.

What are the general causes of Sinus cancer?

Sinus Cancer is associated to a number of artificial causatives that can be controlled to avoid the disease. However, many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

There are 2 risk factors that greatly increase the risk of Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer:

  • Tobacco use Use of tobacco is the single largest risk factor for head and neck cancer. Tobacco products include cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco, and snuff. Eighty-five percent (85%) of Sinus Cancer is linked to tobacco use. 
  • Alcohol Frequent and heavy consumption of alcohol is a high risk factor for Sinus Cancer. Using alcohol and tobacco together increases this risk even more.

Other factors can raise a person’s risk of developing Nasal Cavity or Paranasal sinus cancer.

  • Gender Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer occurs twice as often in men as in women.
  • Age Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer are most commonly found in people between the ages of 45 and 85. However, the development of this cancer is also found among younger people now a days.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) Infection with this virus is a risk factor for Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer.
  • Specific inhalants Breathing in certain substances, most commonly found work environments, may increase the risk of developing Nasal Cavity or Paranasal Sinus Cancer. These substances include:
    • Dust from the wood, textiles, or leather industries
    • Flour dust
    • Nickel dust
    • Chromium dust
    • Mustard gas
    • Asbestos
    • Rubbing alcohol, also called isopropyl alcohol, fumes
    • Radium fumes
    • Glue fumes
    • Formaldehyde fumes
    • Solvent fumes used in furniture and shoe production
  • Exposure to air pollution Being exposed to air pollution may increase a person’s risk of developing Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer.
  • Marijuana use Recent research suggests that people who have used marijuana may be at higher risk for head and neck cancer.

Can Sinus Cancer be prevented?

Though some of the causatives of sinus cancer are beyond our control but most of them are controllable.

  • The two major known causes of sinus cancer are usage of tobacco and alcohol. So, by lowering and controlling their consumption one can definitely be prevented.
  • Using marijuana also increases the risk, so saying no to marijuana drops the risk.
  • Ensuring safe sex reduces the risk of HPV.
  • Ensuring safe work and home environment free of air pollutants.

What are the stages of Sinus Cancer?

Sinus Cancer can be staged using the TNM staging system:

  • refers to the spread of cancer cells to tissues next to the testicle.
  • N describes the spread of cancer cells to regional lymph nodes.
  • M indicates whether the cancer has metastasized.

The results are combined to determine the stage of cancer for each person. There are 5 stages for nasal cavity and paranasal Sinus Cancer: stage 0 (zero) and stages I through IV (1 through 4).

Tumor

  • TX: Primary tumor cannot be evaluated.
  • T0: No evidence of a tumor could be found.
  • Tis: This is a very-early-stage cancer, cancer cells are found only in 1 layer of tissue. It is also called carcinoma in situ.

Primary tumor (T) in the maxillary sinus

  • T1: The spread of tumor is limited to the inside of the sinus.
  • T2: The tumor has spread to the bone surrounding the sinuses.
  • T3: The tumor invades the surrounding bone, the skin of the cheek, or the other sinuses.
  • T4a: The tumor has invaded the bone surrounding the eye, the skin of the cheek, or the throat.
  • T4b: The tumor might invade: the back of the eye, the brain area, or the bones of the skull.

Primary tumor (T) in the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus

  • T1: The tumor is limited to the inside of the sinus and has no involvement with the bone.
  • T2: The tumor extends into the nasal cavity.
  • T3: The tumor extends into the maxillary sinus or to the bone surrounding the eye.
  • T4a: The tumor has spread throughout the facial bones or into the base of the skull.
  • T4b: The tumor invades any of the following: the back of the eye, the brain area, or the back of the head.

Node (N)

  • NX: The regional lymph nodes cannot be evaluated.
  • N0: There is no evidence of cancer in the regional lymph nodes.
  • N1: The cancer has grown up to 3 cm and has spread to a single lymph node on the same side as the primary tumor.
  • N2a: The cancer sizes from 3 cm to 6 cm and has spread to a single lymph node on the same side as the primary tumor.
  • N2b: The cancer has spread to more than 1 lymph node on the same side as the primary tumor, but none measures larger than 6 cm.
  • N2c: The cancer has spread to more than 1 lymph node on either side of the body, but none measures larger than 6 cm.
  • N3: The cancer is found in at least 1 nearby lymph node and is larger than 6 cm.

Metastasis (M)

  • MX: Distant metastasis cannot be evaluated.
  • M0: The cancer has not spread to other parts of the body.
  • M1: The cancer has spread to another part(s) of the body.

Grade (G)
It describes how much cancer cells look like healthy cells when viewed under a microscope.

  • GX: The grade cannot be evaluated.
  • G1: The cells look more like healthy tissue and are well differentiated.
  • G2: The cells are only moderately differentiated.
  • G3: The cells don’t resemble healthy tissue and are poorly differentiated.

Stage I: This is a noninvasive cancer (T1) with no spread to lymph nodes (N0) and no distant metastasis (M0).

 Sinus Cancer Stage I

@ 2005 American Society of Clinical Oncology

Stage II: This is an invasive cancer (T2) that has not spread to lymph nodes (N0) or to distant parts of the body (M0).

 Sinus Cancer Stage II

@ 2005 American Society of Clinical Oncology

Stage III: This includes invasive cancer (T3) with no spread to regional lymph nodes (N0) and no metastasis (M0), as well as invasive cancer (T1, T2, T3) that has spread to regional lymph nodes (N1) but shows no sign of metastasis (M0).

 Sinus Cancer Stage III

@ 2005 American Society of Clinical Oncology

Stage IVA: This is an invasive cancer (T4a) that either has no lymph node involvement (N0) or has spread to only 1 same-sided lymph node (N1) but with no metastasis (M0). It is also used for any cancer (any T) with more significant nodal involvement (N2) but with no metastasis (M0).

 Sinus Cancer Stage IVA

@ 2005 American Society of Clinical Oncology

Stage IVB: This is an invasive cancer (any T) that has spread to lymph nodes (any N) but has no metastasis (M0). It is also used for any cancer (any T) that is found in lymph nodes and is larger than 6 cm (N3) but has no metastasis (M0).

 Sinus Cancer Stage IVB

@ 2005 American Society of Clinical Oncology

Stage IVC: This refers to any tumor (any T, any N) when there is evidence of distant spread (M1).

 Sinus Cancer Stage IVC

@ 2005 American Society of Clinical Oncology

Survival rates of Sinus Cancer?

The survival rate and diagnosis usually go hand in hand. If the symptoms and stage of Sinus Cancer are discovered earlier, the individual will have a greater chance of survival. Here is an analysis of 5 year survival rate of different types of Sinus Cancer based on earlier history. However, these rates might go up and down when calculated for a particular area.

Stages 5-year relative survival rate
I 63%
II 61%
III 50%
IV 35%

Can Sinus Cancer be detected early?

Small cancers of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses usually do not cause any specific symptoms. Many of these cancers are not found until they have grown large enough to block the nasal airway or sinuses, or until they have spread to nearby tissues or even to distant areas of the body.

Here are a few diagnostic tests that might be recommended to detect the presence of this disease.

  • Screening : Screening refers to tests and exams used to detect cancer, in people who do not have any symptoms. Screening can find some types of cancer early, when treatment is most likely to be effective.
  • Physical examination: During a physical examination, any lump on the neck, lips, gums, and cheeks is checked. The doctor further inspects the nose, mouth, throat, and tongue for abnormalities, often using a light and/or mirror for a clearer view.
  • Biopsy: A biopsy is the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope.
    • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy  : The removal of tissue or fluid using a thin needle.
    • Incisional biopsy  : The removal of part of an area of tissue that doesn’t look normal.
    • Excisional biopsy  : The removal of an entire area of tissue that doesn’t look normal.
  • Endoscopy: An endoscopy allows the doctor to see inside the body with a thin, lighted, flexible tube called an endoscope.
  • Nasoscopy : It is a procedure to look inside the body for abnormal areas. A thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing is inserted into the nose.
  • X-ray: An x-ray is a way to create a picture of the structures inside of the body, using a small amount of radiation
  • Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scan: A CT scan creates a 3-dimensional picture of the inside of the body using x-rays taken from different angles.
  • Laryngoscopy: It is a procedure to look at the larynx for abnormal areas. A mirror or a laryngoscope is inserted through the mouth to see the larynx.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI uses magnetic fields, to produce detailed images of the body, especially images of soft tissue, such as the eye in its socket and the part of the brain near the sinuses.

What are the Treatments available?

Depending on the type of Cancer and how far it has spread, different treatments are employed to cure or retard the growth and spread of the disease. Here are a few treatment options usually opted by doctors or oncologists.

Here are a few diagnostic tests that might be recommended to detect the presence of this disease.

  • Surgery: Surgery is used to remove a tumor in the paranasal sinus or nasal cavity. During the operation, the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue, called margin are removed.

    Common types of surgery for nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer include:

    • Excision: An operation to remove the cancerous tumor and some of the healthy tissue around it is conducted.
    • Maxillectomy:This is a surgery that removes part or all of the hard palate, the bony roof of the mouth. Artificial devices called prostheses or, flaps of soft tissue with and without bone can be placed to fill gaps.
    • Endoscopic sinus surgery: This is less destructive to healthy tissue than traditional operations. Occasionally, it can be used for benign tumors. The surgeon makes a small incision to remove the tumor using a thin, telescope-like tube inserted into the nasal cavity or sinus.
    • Neck dissection: This is the surgical removal of lymph nodes in the neck area.
    • Reconstructive surgery: It may be recommended when surgery requires removing large or specific areas of tissue.
  • Radiation therapy: It is the use of high-energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy is most often used in combination with surgery.
    • External-beam radiation therapy:  External-beam radiation therapy is the most common type of radiation given from a machine outside the body. Specific types of external radiation therapy include:
      • Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)
      • Proton therapy.
    • Internal radiation therapy: Radiation treatment given using implants, it is called internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy. Internal radiation therapy involves tiny pellets or rods containing radioactive materials that are surgically implanted in or near the tumor. The implant is left in place for several days while the person stays in the hospital.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by stopping the cancer cells’ ability to grow and divide. Systemic chemotherapy gets into the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Common ways to give chemotherapy include an intravenous (IV) tube placed into a vein using a needle or in a pill or capsule that is swallowed (orally).
  • Palliative care: It is a treatment that focuses on reducing symptoms, improving quality of life, and supporting patients and their families.

Is there curative treatment for Sinus Cancer?

Early stage of the Sinus Cancer is small, localized, and highly curable when treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Advancement in science and technology is facilitating modern methods of highly successful treatment.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

Spotting any of the symptoms of nasal cancer or having a doubt in your mind calls for a visit to the doctor. Also, a familial history or personal history of the disease commands a regular examination at least once a year or as per the doctor’s advice.

How can I as a patient know it early?

Consulting a doctor or oncologist in case of any indication felt or experienced that might suggest the presence of the disease. Ignoring even a small indication might result in devastation. In early stages sinus cancer is highly curable but it gets complicated with passing time.

Skin Cancer

What is Skin Cancer?

Skin is a protective layer that covers our whole body. It shields us against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection.

The uncontrolled growth of mutated cells in the skin is called skin cancer. It occurs when unrepaired DNA damage skin cells triggers mutations, or genetic defects, that lead the skin cells to multiply rapidly and form malignant tumors. These cancer cells can potentially invade the neighbouring cells and tissues and at the later stages can also spread to distant organs. Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer.

Types:

  • Melanoma: It is a rare and aggressive type of skin cancer. If it isn’t diagnosed early, it is likely to invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. It accounts for only 2% of skin cancer but causes most deaths from skin cancer
  • Nonmelanoma: Squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers are called nonmelanoma skin cancers. These are often found in areas exposed to sun, but may occur elsewhere. They usually respond to treatment and rarely spread to other parts of the body.

Less common types of skin cancer

    • Merkel cell carcinoma
    • Kaposi sarcoma
    • Cutaneous (skin) lymphoma
    • Skin adnexal tumors (tumors that start in hair follicles or skin glands)
    • Various types of sarcomas

Skin Cancer Occurrence Rate in India

The exact incidence of skin cancer in India is not known. However, skin cancers constitute about 1-2% of all diagnosed cancers. The incidence of skin cancer in India is quite low when compared to western countries. Most of the cases being reported in India are squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma while the occurrence of non melanoma skin cancer is quite low among Asians.

Anatomy of Skin

Skin Cancer

Copyright © M Hssurgery.com, The above image is used for educational purpose only.

What are the general symptoms of Skin Cancer?

Different types of skin cancer shows different signs. Below mentioned are some of the symptoms that might indicate the presence of the disease but they do not necessarily ascertain the disease. However, if any of the symptoms is spotted then consulting a doctor is highly recommended.

Basal cell carcinoma:

  • A pearly or waxy bump
  • A flat, flesh-colored or brown scar-like lesion.

Squamous cell carcinoma:

  • A firm, red nodule.
  • A flat lesion with a scaly, crusted surface.

Melanoma signs and symptoms:

  • A large brownish spot with darker speckles
  • A mole that changes in color, size or feel or that bleeds
  • A small lesion with an irregular border and portions that appear red, white, blue or blue-black
  • Dark lesions on your palms, soles, fingertips or toes, or on mucous membranes lining your mouth, nose, vagina or anus

Other Symptoms:

  • Red or purple patches on the skin or mucous membranes.
  • Firm, shiny nodules that occur on or just beneath the skin and in hair follicles.
  • Hard, painless nodules

What are the general causes of Skin cancer?

Skin cancer is associated to a number of causatives. However, many people with one or more risk factors never get cancer, while others who get cancer may have had few or no known risk factors.

  • Ultraviolet (UV) light exposure – One of the major risk factor for most skin cancers is high exposure to the sun. Tanning beds, lamps are another source of UV rays.
  • Having fair skin – Less pigment (melanin) in your skin provides less protection from damaging UV radiation.
  • Older age – The risk of getting basal and squamous cell skin cancers rises as people get older due to accumulated exposure to UV radiation. However, skin cancers are increasingly being found in younger individuals.
  • Male gender – Men are about twice as likely as women to have basal cell cancers
  • Exposure to chemicals – Certain chemicals, including Arsenic, coal tar, paraffin, and certain types of oil may also have an increased risk of skin cancer.
  • Increased Radiation exposure – Treatment with radiation can increase the risk for developing skin cancers in the exposed area.
  • Multiple or unusual moles – People who have many moles or abnormal moles called dysplastic nevi are at increased risk of skin cancer.
  • Severe sunburns in the past – Having had one or more blistering sunburns as a child or teenager increases your risk of developing skin cancer as an adult
  • Long-term or severe skin inflammation or injury – Skin damaged by some severe inflammatory skin diseases is more likely to develop skin cancers, although this risk is generally small.
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) – This very rare inherited condition reduces the ability of skin cells to repair DNA damage caused by sun exposure.
  • Basal cell nevus syndrome (also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome or Gorlin syndrome) – In this rare congenital (present at birth) condition, people develop many basal cell cancers over their lifetime.
  • Weakened immune system – People with weakened immune systems have a greater risk of developing skin cancer. This includes people living with HIV/AIDS and those taking immunosuppressant drugs after an organ transplant.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection – Infection with certain types of HPV, particularly those that affect the anal or genital area, may increase your skin cancer risks.
  • Smoking – People who smoke are more likely to develop squamous cell skin cancer.
  • History of skin cancer

Can Skin Cancer be prevented?

The best ways to lower your risk of skin cancer are to avoid long exposure to intense sunlight and practice sun safety, with glares, hats, t-shirts and umbrellas. Wearing a good quality sun screen throughout the year also provides safety. Tanning beds and lamps should be avoided completely.

Regular, thorough skin examinations are also important, especially if there are a large number of moles or other risk factors. While this will not prevent skin cancer from developing, it may help to catch it early, when it can be treated more easily.

What are the stages of Skin cancer?

Non-melanoma skin cancers rarely spread and may not be staged. The chance that squamous cell carcinomas will spread is slightly higher and may be staged using the TNM System.

  • T refers to the spread of cancer cells to tissues next to the testicle.
  • N describes the spread of cancer cells to regional lymph nodes.
  • M indicates whether the cancer has metastasized.

Like all other cancers skin cancer is also staged into levels depending on the spread, size and severity of the disease.

  • Stage 0: The cancer cells are confined to the epidermis
  • Stage I: The cancer cells have grown deeper into the skin, but have not spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body.
  • Stage II: Cancer cells have grown deeper into the skin, or have more high-risk features, but have not spread to the lymph nodes or beyond.
  • Stage III: The cancer cells have spread to nearby lymph nodes, but not to distant organs.
  • Stage IV: The cancer cells have spread beyond the skin and regional lymph nodes to distant organs such as the liver, lungs or brain or distant lymph nodes and areas of the skin.

Survival rates on of Skin cancer?

Needless to say, if the skin cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

Melanoma Staging Survival Rate:

Stages 5 year Survival Rate
Stage I A 97%
Stage I B 92%
Stage IIA 81%
Stage IIB 70%
Stage IIC 53%
Stage IIIA 78%
Stage IIIB 59%
Stage IIIC 40%
Stage IV 15%

Can Skin Cancer be detected early?

Being aware of the signs and symptoms definitely aids in its early detection. Some other methods of diagnosis are discussed below:

  • Physical Examination : Skin Cancer can be detected early with screening or even, simply with a self-exam where you take note of the changes on your skin.
  • Skin biopsy : Removal of the suspicious-looking skin for lab testing.

What are the Treatments available?

Based on the type and stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options may include:

  • Surgery
  • Other forms of local therapy
  • Radiation therapy
  • Systemic chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Chemotherapy

Treatment is based on the type of tumor and other factors, and often more than one type of treatment is used. Discuss all of your treatment options as well as their possible side effects with your treatment team to help make the decision that best fits your needs.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor. Also, a familial history or personal history of the disease commands a regular examination at least once a year for the disease.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section, you should definitely visit a doctor. Ignoring even a small indication might result in devastation. In early stages Skin cancer is highly curable but it gets complicated with passing time.

Stomach Cancer

What is Stomach (Gastric) Cancer?

Gastric (stomach) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lining of the stomach. The stomach is in the upper abdomen and helps digest food.

Almost all gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). Other types of gastric cancer are gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas.

infection with bacteria called H. pylori is a common cause of gastric cancer.

Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage because there are no early signs or symptoms.

Anatomy of Stomach (Gastric)

Stomach Cancer

What are the general symptoms of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer?

Most Stomach (Gastric)  cancers do not cause any symptoms until they have spread too far to be cured, but sometimes, we do get symptoms at an early stage.
Early stages:

  • Indigestion and stomach discomfort.
  • A bloated feeling after eating.
  • Mild nausea.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Heartburn.

Advanced stages:

  • Blood in the stool.
  • Vomiting.
  • Weight loss for no known reason.
  • Stomach pain.
  • Jaundice
  • Ascites (build-up of fluid in the abdomen).
  • Trouble swallowing.

These symptoms are more likely to be caused by conditions other than Stomach (Gastric)  cancer. Still, it’s important to see your doctor right away so the cause can be found and treated, if needed.

What are the general causes of Stomach (Gastric) cancer?

Risk factors for gastric cancer include the following:

  • Medical conditions:
    • Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection of the stomach.
    • Chronic gastritis >inflammation of the stomach.
    • Pernicious anemia.
    • Intestinal intestines.
    • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or gastric polyps.
  • Eating a diet high in salted, smoked foods and low in fruits and vegetables.
  • Eating foods that have not been prepared or stored properly.
  • Being older or male.
  • Smoking cigarettes.
  • Having a mother, father, sister, or brother who has had stomach cancer.

If you have any of the above symptoms, please get yourself checked. It may be noting, but it’s best to be sure!

Can Stomach (Gastric) Cancer be prevented?

Stomach cancer can be prevented to an extent by avoiding the risk factors.

What are the stages of Stomach (Gastric) cancer?

Cancer has different stages, each depicted by a Roman numeral from 1 to 4 (I, II, III and IV). Stage I is the first stage where the tumor is still small while at Stage IV, the patient’s condition is said to be critical because the tumor  has spread to other organs of the body. Hence, a cancer’s stage refers to the tumor’s size and extent of spread. This is the simplest form of staging.

In Stomach (Gastric)  cancer, the stage depends on whether it is confined to Stomach (Gastric) s (localized cancer, Stage I) or whether it has spread to other organs (metastatic cancer).

The stage decides the kind of treatment you need to get. The greater the stage number, the more complex the treatment.

Survival rates on of Stomach (Gastric) cancer?

Needless to say, if the stomach cancer is detected while it is still in Stage I, survival rate is higher. The rate decreases progressively with the increase in stage. Stage III is considered critical, while stage IV is, more often than not, fatal.

However, medicine is evolving everyday to meet these challenges and to keep you happy, healthy and alive!

Can Stomach (Gastric) Cancer be detected early?

Unfortunately, there is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. However, the following tests are usually useful.

    • Physical exam and Genetic & Medical history
    • Blood chemistry studies
    • Complete blood count (CBC):
    • Upper endoscopy: A procedure to look inside the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum to check for abnormal areas.
    • CT scan (CAT scan)
    • Biopsy: Includes tests like Immunohistochemistryand FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization).

What are the Treatments available?

The prognosis and treatment options depend on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer.
  • The patient’s general health.

There is a better chance of recovery on early detection. However, the Cancer is usually in an advanced stage when it is diagnosed. In such cases, it can be treated, but rarely cured.

Is there curative treatment for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer?

This is dependent on te stage the Cancer has reached. However, the Cancer is usually in an advanced stage when it is diagnosed. In such cases, it can be treated, but rarely cured.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

If you have any of the symptoms, please do visit the doctor.

How can I as a patient know it early?

If you feel any of the symptoms mentioned in the Symptoms section , you should probably visit a doctor. You can also get your genetic make-up checked to see if you are prone to Stomach (Gastric) cancer or not.

Throat Cancer

What is Throat Cancer?

Throat is a 5-inch-long tube that runs from nose to neck. Throat Cancer is a compilation that includes Cancer of the mouth, tonsils, nose, sinuses, salivary glands and neck lymph nodes. Larynx (Laryngeal Cancer) that is the voice box and pharynx (Pharyngeal Cancer) which is the hollow tube running from nose to windpipe, are the two most prone areas of Throat Cancer.

Anatomy of Throat

Throat Cancer

What are the General Symptoms of Throat Cancer?

While it is easy to observe the common signs and symptoms of throat Cancer, its early detection still gets delayed because of negligence. Being aware of these common signs and symptoms is sure to aid.

  • Difficulty swallowing due to sore Throat (dysphagia)
  • Change in voice
  • Unexplainable weight loss
  • Swelling of the eyes, jaw, throat or neck
  • Bleeding in the mouth or through the nose
  • Constant urge to clear your throat
  • Chronic cough (may cough up blood)
  • Wheezing
  • Ear pain
  • Hoarseness

What are the general causes of Throat Cancer?

Throat Cancer is associated with various causes which range from excessive smoking, tobacco use, to exposure to chemicals. Among all, smoking has been the most prevalent cause contributing to Throat Cancer symptoms.

A few common likely causative factors of throat Cancer are:

  • Maintaining a low diet in fruits and vegetables
  • Rampant use of cigarettes, pipes and cigars.
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted virus.
  • Chronic acid reflux called GERD.
  • Contracting Epstein - Barr virus (EBV) virus is transmitted via saliva.

Can Throat Cancer be prevented?

Though there’s no definitive formula to prevent Throat Cancer, but it can be definitely be prevented to an extent. Here are some of the measures that might protect you from the dreadful disease.

  • Saying no to smoking.
  • Reducing alcohol intake.
  • Eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, and lean meats while avoiding fat and sodium intake and take steps to lose excess weight.
  • Engaging in physical activity at least 150 minutes a week.
  • Reducing risk of HPV. Limiting the number of sexual partners and practicing safe sex. Also, the HPV vaccine might offer you some protection.

What are the stages of Throat Cancer?

Throat Cancer is staged on three key components:

  • Tumor (T) describes the size of the original tumor.
  • Node (N) indicates whether the Cancer is present in the lymph nodes.
  • Metastasis (M) refers to whether Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

A number (0-4) or the letter X is assigned to each factor. A higher number indicates increasing severity. The letter X means the information could not be assessed.

Once the T, N and M scores have been assigned, an overall stage is assigned. The stages range from 0 to 4:

  • Stage 0: The tumor has not invaded tissue beyond your throat.
  • Stage 1: The tumor is less than 7 cm and limited to your throat.
  • Stage 2: The tumor is slightly larger than 7 cm, but still limited to your throat.
  • Stage 3: The tumor has grown and spread to nearby tissues and organs.
  • Stage 4: The tumor has spread to your lymph nodes or distant organs.

Survival rates of Throat Cancer?

The survival rate and diagnosis usually go hand in hand. If the symptoms and stage of Throat Cancer are discovered earlier, the individual will have a greater chance of survival. Here is a analysis of 5 year survival rate of different types of Throat Cancer based on earlier history.

Stage Supraglottis Glottis Subglottis Hypopharynx
I 59% 90% 65% 59%
II 59% 74% 56% 39%
III 53% 56% 47% 36%
IV 34% 44% 32% 24%

Survival rates are based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had the disease, but they cannot predict what will happen in any person’s case. Many other factors can affect a person’s outlook, such as their general health and how well the Cancer responds to treatment.

Can Throat Cancer be detected early?

Being aware of the symptoms and keeping an eye on your health will definitely help you detect Cancer at early stage. Also, screening tests may help finding some types of Cancer early, when treatment is most likely to be effective. There are a series of diagnostic tests for you to identify and beat it.

Throat Cancer Diagnostic Tests

  • Direct (flexible) laryngoscopy: In this,a fiber-optic laryngoscope, a thin, flexible, lighted tube is inserted through the mouth or nose to look at the larynx and nearby areas.
  • Indirect laryngoscopy: Special small mirrors are used to view the larynx and nearby areas.
  • Panendoscopy: It is a procedure that combines laryngoscopy, esophagoscopy, and bronchoscopy.
  • Biopsy: Different methods are used to obtain tissue for a biopsy, depending on where the tumor is located.
    • Conventional incisional biopsy: The doctor surgically removes part or all of the tissue where Cancer is suspected.
    • Fine-needle-aspiration biopsy (FNA): This is used if there is a lump in neck that can be felt. A thin needle is inserted into the area, and then cells are withdrawn and examined under a microscope.
    • Endoscopy: An endoscope is inserted through the mouth, nose or an incision. The endoscope has a tool to remove tissue samples.
  • Imaging tests, which includes
    • CT or CAT (computed axial tomography) scans
    • PET (positron emission tomography) scans
    • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans
    • Chest and dental X-rays
  • Barium swallow: Also called an upper GI (gastrointestinal) series, this set of X-rays of the esophagus and stomach may be used to look for Cancer.
  • Laryngeal videostroboscopy: This test lets the doctor look at the larynx and see how well you swallow.
  • Fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing (FEES): A small, flexible endoscope is inserted through the nose, allowing the doctor to examine swallowing.

What are the Treatments available?

Depending on the type of Cancer and how far it has spread, treated with one or a combination of therapies.

  • Surgery:
    The types of surgical procedures depend on the location and stage of your cancer. Options may include:
    • Surgery for early-stage Throat Cancer.
    • Surgery to remove all or part of the voice box (laryngectomy).
    • Surgery to remove part of the throat (pharyngectomy).
    • Surgery to remove cancerous lymph nodes (neck dissection).
  • Chemotherapy:
    Chemotherapy may be used to shrink a tumor before surgery or kill lingering Cancer cells after surgery and/or radiation treatment. A combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used as a primary treatment for patients with larger tumors or those who cannot tolerate surgery.
  • Radiation Therapy:
    Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams from sources such as X-rays and protons to deliver radiation to the Cancer cells, causing them to die. For early-stage Throat Cancers, radiation therapy may be the only treatment necessary. For more advanced Throat Cancers, radiation therapy may be combined with chemotherapy or surgery. In very advanced Throat Cancers, radiation therapy may be used to reduce signs and symptoms and make you more comfortable.
  • Targeted Therapies:
    These innovative new drugs stop the growth of Cancer cells by interfering with certain proteins and receptors or blood vessels that supply the tumor with what it needs to grow. Targeted drugs treat Throat Cancer by taking advantage of specific defects in Cancer cells that fuel the cells' growth. These drugs can be used in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Is there curative treatment for Throat Cancer?

Early stage of the Throat Cancer is small, localized, and highly curable when treated with surgery& or radiation therapy. It includes stage I, II, and some stage III Cancers.

How frequently should one visit doctor for early diagnosis?

Having some of the symptoms associated with Throat Cancer may not necessarily indicate the presence of the disease. However, expert advice to rule out the possibility is prudent, making curative treatment possible.

How can I as a patient know it early?

Being aware of the signs and symptoms will definitely help a patient to suspect the disease. And the going for a diagnosis or visiting a doctor will clear the air.

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